Chapter 12 vocab (book)
• Enculturated: To become a member of a culture, to learn the rules by which a society operates,
and to follow them is to become enculturated. Children are born into a culture that is,
after all, a set of learned behaviors.As the mature the grow into their culture- becoming
enculturated- learning every day how to act, how to behave, and how to believe by being
surrounded by people who are members of the culture who are acting, behaving, and
believing in ways appropriate to the culture.
• Patrilocality:Apostmarital residence pattern in which, upon marriage, a women leaves the
community into which she was born and within which she was raised and moves into the
compound, neighborhood, or village in which her husband and his family reside.
• Matrilocality:A postmarital residence pattern in which, upon marriage, a man leaves the
community into which he was born and within which he was raised and moves into the
compound, neighborhood, or village in which his wife and her family reside.
• Potsherds: Fragment of pottery from a broken pot. Entire, intact pots are rare in archaeology.
Most ceramic artifacts are, in fact, potsherds, sometimes simply called sherds.
• Rank Societies: Asociety in which there are a number of sociopolitical levels, or “ranks.”
These ranks do not confer economic power but do provide different levels of status or
• Stratified: These are societies characterized by social- economic- political- classes, or castes,
into which people are born and, ordinarily, within which they and their descendants
remain. These layered societies, with noble classes, merchant classes, workers, and
peasants, characterize complex societies.
• Complex Societies: Society in which authority, coordination of activity, and control of behavior
are organized at a level beyond that of the family. Complex societies may have ranks or
classes peopled by individuals with greater or lesser wealth, authority, or social standing
than those in other ranks or classes.
• Petroglyphs: Literally “rock writing.” By incising or pounding, people produce images and
designs on rock surfaces, often by exposing the lighter rock beneath a dark rock surface.
• Pictographs: Design painted onto a rock surface.
• Effigy Mounds: Earthen structure made made in the shape of animals, both real and mythical,
and people. The ancient people of theAmerican Midwest, in particular, produced efficy
• Archaeoastronomy: The