Globalization and International Affairs
Samuel P Huntington
Clash of Civilizations
In the future, the "fundamental source of conflict...will be cultural."
Starting with the French Rev. , we saw the rise of nationalism, and the lines of conflicts were between nations and
not just monarchs.
"The wars of kings were over; the wars of peoples had begun." R.R. Palmer, 1793
Next we saw, with the Russian Rev, no conflicts of nations but conflicts of ideologies (communism vs democracy)
With the nation/ideology conflicts ending (with the end of the Cold War), international politics moved out of its
strictly Western phase and now the centerpiece is the interaction between Western and Non-Western nations
The future world will be shaped by conflicts between the 7-8 major "civilizations" -- Western, Confucian, Japanese,
Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, and maybe African.
i) Differences are basic; language, culture, tradition, religion, political ideologies
ii) The world is becoming a smaller place; interactions between people from different civilizations is increasing
which increases the awareness of differences between civilizations
(1) An Ibo could be an Owerri Ibo or an Onitsha Ibo in eastern Nigeria. In Lagos, he's just an Ibo. In London,
he's a Nigerian. In NY, he's an African.
iii) Economic modernization and social change are separating people from their (longstanding) local identities --
this weakens the nation state as a source of identity