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POLB81H3 Chapter Notes -George Weigel, Islamic Revival, Liberal Democracy

Political Science
Course Code
Wiafe- Amaoko

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Samuel P. Huntington
Next pattern of conflict
fundamental source of conflict in this new world won’t be primarily
ideological/primarily eco
great divisions among humankind & dominating source of conflict will be cultural
nation states will remain most powerful actors in world affairs but principal conflicts
of global politics will occur btw nations & groups of diff civilizations
clash of civilizations will dominate global politics
fault lines btw civilizations will be battle lines of future
Conflict btw civilizations will be the latest phase in evolution of conflict in modern world
For century & half after emergence of modern int’l system w/ Peace of Westphalia,
conflicts of Western world were largely among princes—emperors, absolute monarchs
& constitutional monarchs attempting to expand their bureaucracies, their armies, their
mercantilist eco strength &, most important, territory they ruled
In process they created nation states, & beginning w/French Revolution principal lines
of conflict were btw nations rather than princes
In 1793, as R. R. Palmer put it, "wars of kings were over; wars of peoples had begun."
This 19th century pattern lasted until end of WWI
Then, as result of the Russian Revolution & reaction against it, conflict of nations
yielded to conflict of ideologies, among communism, fascism-Nazism & liberal
democracy, & then btw communism & liberal democracy
During Cold War, this latter conflict became embodied in struggle btw 2 superpowers,
neither of which was nation state in classical European sense & each of which defined
its identity in terms of its ideology
These conflicts btw princes, nation states &and ideologies were primarily conflicts
w/in Western civilization, "Western civil wars," as William Lind has labeled them
This was as true of the Cold War as it was of world wars & earlier wars of 17th, 18th
& 19th centuries
W/ end of Cold War, int’l politics moves out of its Western phase, & its
centerpiece becomes interaxn btw West & non-Western civilizations & among
non-Western civilizations
In politics of civilizations, ppl & govts of non-Western civilizations no longer remain
objects of history as targets of Western colonialism but join West as movers & shapers
of history
Nature of Civilizations
Cold War divided into 1st, 2nd & 3W
no longer relevant
far more meaningful now to group countries not in terms of their poli/ eco sys/ in
terms of their lvl of eco dev but rather in terms of their culture & civilization
civilization= cultural entity (ex village, region, ethnic groups, nationalities,
religious groups, all have distinct cultures at diff lvls of cultural heterogeneity
but Arabs, Chinese & Westerners are not part of any broader cultural entity
constitute civilization
so civilization
= highest cultural grouping of ppl & broadest lvl of cultural identity ppl
have short of that which distinguishes humans from other species
defined both by common objective elements
ex language, history, religion, customs, institutions, & by subjective
self-identification of ppl

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Ppl have lvls of identity = resident of Rome may define himself w/
varying degrees of intensity as Roman, Italian, Catholic, Christian,
European, Westerner
Ppl can & do redefine their identities &, as result, composition
boundaries of civilizations change
may involve large # of ppl, as w/ China/very small # of ppl, ex Anglophone
may include several nation states, as is case w/ Western, Latin Am & Arab
civilizations,/only 1, as is case w/ Jap civilization
obviously blend & overlap, & may include subcivilizations
Western civilization has 2 major variants, European & North Am, & Islam
has its Arab, Turkic & Malay subdivisions
are nonetheless meaningful entities, & while lines btw them are seldom
sharp, they are real
are dynamic; rise & fall; divide & merge
disappear & are buried in sands of time
Westerners tend to think of nation states as principal actors in global affairs
broader reaches of human history have been history of civilizations
Why Civilizations will clash
Civilization Identity will be increasingly imp in future, & world will be shaped in large
measure by interaxns among 7/8 major civilizations
These include Western, Confucian, Jap, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin Am &
possibly African civilization
most important conflicts of future will occur along cultural fault lines separating these
civilizations from one another
differences among civilizations are not only real; they are basic
Civilizations are differentiated from each other by history, language, culture,
tradition & religion
ppl of diff civilization have diff views on relations btw God & man, individual
& group, citizen & state, parents & children, husband & wife, & relative
importance of rights & responsibilities, liberty & authority, equality &
far more fundamental than differences among poli ideologies & poli
Differences don’t necessarily mean conflict, & conflict doesn’t necessarily
mean violence
Over the centuries, diff among civilizations have generated most
prolonged & most violent conflicts
world is becoming smaller place
interaxns btw ppls of diff civilizations are ↑
these ↑increasing interaxns intensify civilization consciousness &
awareness of diff btw civilizations & commonalities w/in civilizations
interaxns among ppl of diff civilizations ↑ civilization-consciousness of ppl
that, in turn, invigorates diff & animosities stretching / thought to stretch back
deep into history
processes of eco modernization & social change throughout world are

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separating ppl from longstanding local identities
also weaken nation state as source of identity
In much of world religion has moved in to fill this gap, often in form of movets
that are labeled "fundamentalist"
Such movts are found in Western Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism &
Hinduism, & in Islam
In most countries & most religions ppl active in fundamentalist movts are
young, college-educated, middle-class technicians, professionals & business
"unsecularization of world," George Weigel has remarked, "is one of the
dominant social facts of life in the late twentieth century."
revival of religion provides basis for identity & commitment that transcends
national boundaries & unites civilizations
growth of civilization-consciousness is enhanced by dual role of West
On 1 hand, West is at peak of power
At same time, & perhaps as result, return to roots phenomenon is occurring
among non-Western civilizations
↑ 1 hears references to trends toward turning inward & "Asianization" in
Japan, end of Nehru legacy & "Hinduization" of India, failure of Western ideas
of socialism &nationalism & hence "re-Islamization" of Middle East, & now
debate over Westernization vs Russianization in Boris Yeltsin's country
West at peak of its power confronts non-Wests that ↑ have desire, will ↑
resources to shape world in non-Western ways.
In past, elites of non-Western societies were usually ppl who were most
involved w/ West, had been educated at Oxford, Sorbonne/Sandhurst, & had
absorbed Western attitudes & values
At same time, populace in non-Western countries often remained deeply
imbued w/ indigenous culture
Now, these relationships are being reversed.
de-Westernization & indigenization of elites is occurring in many non-
Western countries at same time that Western, usually Am, cultures, styles &
habits become more popular among mass of ppl.
cultural characteristics & differences are less mutable & hence less easily
compromised & resolved than poli & eco ones
In former Soviet Union, communists can become democrats, rich can become
poor & poor rich, but Russians can’t become Estonians & Azeris can’t become
Even more than ethnicity, religion discriminates sharply & exclusively among
ppl. person can be half-French & half-Arab & simultaneously even citizen of 2
more difficult to be half-Catholic & half-Muslim.
eco regionalism is increasing
proportions of total trade that were intraregional ↑ btw 1980 & 1989 from 51%
to 59% in Europe, 33% to 37% in East Asia, & 32% to 36% in North America
imp of regional eco blocs is likely to continue to ↑ in future
On 1 hand, successful eco regionalism will reinforce civilization-
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