approaches to personality psychology.docx

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Dr.Daniela Martin

Corey Young Dr. Daniela Martin Personality Psychology 13 March 2013 Approaches to Personality • Biological Aspects i. Direct Effects: genetics/ heritability, introversion/ extroversion, sensation seeking, infant temperament. ii. Indirect Effects: (Positive) exercise, (Negative) Strokes, poisoning iii. Nature Vs. Nurture iv. Interactions Biology- Environment: peer pressure in establishing drug addiction reaction to physical characteristics, gender, race. v. Genetic Influences: brain hemispheres; left- positive mood & right- negative mood, temperament; individual differences in emotional reactivity at birth (9- Dimensions), implication; knowing one’s best temperament allows development of the best approaches (Ex. parenting, skill- building). • Perception & Schemas i. Perception- how we interpret sensations. ii. Schemas- framed transparent templates on how we view the world. *Associating perception iii. Implicit Associations Test (IAT) - associations we have created in our unconscious. iv. Stereotyping- prejudged associations to a certain characterization. v. Constructive Psychology: theory of selecting lenses, frames, and impressions that resist change. vi. Rotter’s Locus of Control: measures generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. People with an internal locus of control believe that their own actions determine the rewards that they obtain, while those with an external locus of control believe that their own behavior doesn't matter much and that rewards in life are generally outside of their control. vii. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory: behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning and modeling behavior being reinforced either positively or negatively. (Bobo Doll) • Behaviorist & Learning Personality i. Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning; stimulation reflex + neutral stimulus = conditioned stimulus. ii. Behavior (response) is flexible, involves experience do to association; pairing the unconditioned stimulus with the conditions stimulus to create a new association called a conditioned response to replace the original association. iii. John Watson: Behavioralism/ Environmentalism; clas
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