Dr. Daniela Martin
13 March 2013
Approaches to Personality
• Biological Aspects
i. Direct Effects: genetics/ heritability, introversion/ extroversion, sensation seeking,
ii. Indirect Effects: (Positive) exercise, (Negative) Strokes, poisoning
iii. Nature Vs. Nurture
iv. Interactions Biology- Environment: peer pressure in establishing drug addiction
reaction to physical characteristics, gender, race.
v. Genetic Influences: brain hemispheres; left- positive mood & right- negative
mood, temperament; individual differences in emotional reactivity at birth (9-
Dimensions), implication; knowing one’s best temperament allows development
of the best approaches (Ex. parenting, skill- building).
• Perception & Schemas
i. Perception- how we interpret sensations.
ii. Schemas- framed transparent templates on how we view the world.
*Associating perception iii. Implicit Associations Test (IAT) - associations we have created in our
iv. Stereotyping- prejudged associations to a certain characterization.
v. Constructive Psychology: theory of selecting lenses, frames, and impressions
that resist change.
vi. Rotter’s Locus of Control: measures generalized expectancies for internal versus
external control of reinforcement. People with an internal locus of control believe
that their own actions determine the rewards that they obtain, while those with an
external locus of control believe that their own behavior doesn't matter much and
that rewards in life are generally outside of their control.
vii. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory: behavior is learned from the environment
through the process of observational learning and modeling behavior being
reinforced either positively or negatively. (Bobo Doll)
• Behaviorist & Learning Personality i. Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning; stimulation reflex + neutral stimulus =
ii. Behavior (response) is flexible, involves experience do to association; pairing the
unconditioned stimulus with the conditions stimulus to create a new association
called a conditioned response to replace the original association.
iii. John Watson: Behavioralism/ Environmentalism; clas