01:119:116 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Cytokinesis, Follicular Phase, Cervix

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Published on 11 Apr 2016
School
Rutgers University
Department
Biological Science
Course
01:119:116
Lecture 15: Reproduction II
Background
Function
Produce ova (eggs)
Receives penis + sperm


Main Organs
Ovary:

Found in abdominal cavity (NOT external like testes)
Held in place by ligaments
Produce:

 
Oviducts = fallopian tubes
Extend from uterus to each ovary
Funnel-shaped end portion covers ovary
2
oocyte from ovary will go into oviduct
!"

Site of fertilization
#$%&'
oocyte degenerates in oviduct
Uterus (womb)
○ Myometrium: muscle womb
Thick, smooth muscle wall that can expand during pregnancy
Endometrium:
Consists of connective tissue, glands, blood vessels
Cyclically thickens in preparation for a possible pregnancy
#&
#$%&(

Cervix:
Lower portion of uterus
Sperates uterus from vagina
Common cancer site via HPV
HPV vaccine prevents cervical cancer
Vagina:
Muscular tissue
Extends outside the body
Receives penis + sperm
Vulva:
External genitalia that covers the external opening
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Oogenesis
)'
Via mitosis + development
%'"
*
Via mitosis + development
1
'+",
oocytes in ovary
-#
Female is born with 1-2 million 1
oocytes
* .'//0
1
oocyte remains dormant until puberty (sexual maturity)
Hormones act on 1
oocyte
Complete meiosis I and oocyte is arrested at metaphase II
*EACH oocyte is within follicle*
%*'
oocyte
Follicle:
Components:
1
oocyte

1",
oocyte + follicle cell
Thick layer of glycoproteins (used for cell signaling)
Each month, 6-12 follicles mature AFTER puberty
1
oocyte in follicles grow + follicle cell divides
*,"2,
"
○ 1
oocyte:
Completes meiosis I 8-10 hours before release from ovary
Unequal cytokinesis:
)
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2
%*++2
##
Ovulation :
2

322&
""'
oocyte
2
4
Corpus luteum: yellow body
Portion of follicle left in ovary AFTER ovulation
“Temporary endocrine gland”:
Secretes estrogen + lots of progesterone
Oogenesis
Primordial Germ Cells (2n)
Oogonium (2n)
1
oocyte (2n)
#56,'
2
##
If sperm fertilizes 2
oocyte
Completes meiosis II
Completely mature egg + sperm head fuse genomes
Oogenesis complete!!!
If NO fertilization of 2
oocyte
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Document Summary

Female gonad found in pair (like testes) Found in abdominal cavity (not external like testes) Gametes oocytes via oogenesis (egg birth) 2 oocyte from ovary will go into oviduct. Moves down the oviduct uterus via beating cilia and contractions. If no fertilization 2 oocyte degenerates in oviduct. Thick, smooth muscle wall that can expand during pregnancy. Consists of connective tissue, glands, blood vessels. Cyclically thickens in preparation for a possible pregnancy. If fertilization embryo implants + develops here. If no fertilization thickened tissue is sloughed of menstruation. External genitalia that covers the external opening. Primordial germ cells (2n) formed in developing embryo. Oogonium (2n) formed during embryonic development born with. Female born with 1 oocytes in ovary. Begin meiosis meiosis is arrested at prophase i. Female is born with 1-2 million 1 oocytes. At sexual maturity only ~200k remain. 1 oocyte remains dormant until puberty (sexual maturity) Complete meiosis i and oocyte is arrested at metaphase ii.