Textbook Notes (368,611)
United States (206,086)
Psychology (295)
01:830:340 (47)
Chapter 2


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Sara Campbell

CHAPTER 2: An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology multidimensional integrative approach- study that integrated multiple integrating causal factors systematic- each component of the system affects the other components 1. biological influences 2. behavioral influences 3. emotional influences 4. social influences 5. developmental influences a. developmental critical period- we may be more or less susceptible to given situation than at other times Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology ■ nature versus nurture ■ much of our behavior and personality is polygenic (influenced by multiple genes) ■ genetic factors account for less than half the explanation of a disorder (ex if a twin is mental only 50% chance the other twin will be) ■ genetic contributions are studied with events that “turn on” specific genes A. Genes and the Environment ■ diathesis stress model- individuals inherit tendencies to express certain traits or behaviors which may be activated under conditions of stress ○ diathesis- inherited condition that makes someone susceptible to developing a disorder ○ vulnerability- susceptibility or tendency to inherit a disorder, does not become prominent until certain environmental events occur ■ reciprocal gene-environment model- (gene enviro correlation model) people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder ○ some evidence indicates that genes may increase the probability an individual will be exposed to a stressful situation ○ ex if your fraternal twin divorces you are likely to get divorced, even greater chance if identical twins B. Epigenetics and Nongenomic “Inheritance” of Behavior ■ experiment with three genetically different mice in same enviro showed that genetic influences are less powerful than commonly believed and that enviro largely shapes who we are ■ example with rats being raised by different mothers and measured their stress level compared to mothers ■ baby with genetic predisposition to schizophrenia only developed a disorder if adopted into dysfunctional family ■ epigenetics- study of factors other than inherited DNA sequence, such as new learning or stress, that alter the phenotypic expression of genes ■ *genes influence our emotions, behavior, cognition but enviro determines if they are expressed or not Neuroscience and its contributions to Psychopathology neuroscience- study of the NS and its role in behavior, thoughts , and emotion A. The CNS ■ brain and spinal cord, processes info received from our sense organs and determines a response ■ filters important and unimportant stimuli ■ neuron,axon, dendrite, synaptic cleft, NT ■ gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- associated with excessive anxiety ■ dopamine- excessive is linked to schizophrenia ■ norepinephrine- excess linked to depression ■ serotonin- low levels linked to depression B. Structures of the Brain ■ see attatched C. the endocrine system ■ adrenal glands- produce epinephrine in response to stress ■ thyroid- produces thyroxine which facilitates energy metabolism and growth ■ pituitary- regulatory hormones ■ gonads- sex hormones ■ regulation may play role in depression, anxiety and schizophrenia ■ psychoneuroendocrinology D. neurotransmitters ■ brain circuits- NT current or neural pathway in the brain, cross one another therefore NT often influence one another ■ NT thought to contribute to abnormal behavior not cause it ■ agonists- substance that increases the effect of a NT by mimicking its effects ■ antagonists- substances that dec or block effect of a NT ■ inverse agonists- substance that produce effects opposite to the NT ■ monoamines- norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine ■ amines- glutamine and GABA Implications of psychopathology ■ brain injury doesn’t result in a disorder ■ focus on general brain activity in influencing personality ■ damage to frontal cortex impairing normal functioning ■ effects of treatments can reveal something about the psychopatholgy ■ interactions btwn psychosocial factors and brain ○ psych
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