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Mitochondria and the Krebs Cycle.docx

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BIOL 3096
Joel Sheffield

Lecture 33 – Mitochondria and the Krebs Cycle November 18, 2013 Mitochondria Structure: • Outer membrane • Inner membrane that fold inward in ridges called cristae • There is the inter-membrane space between the inner and outer membranes • The inside lumen of the cell contains the matrix. • There are proteins in the outer membrane, particularly transport channels like Porin, a passive channel that allows liquids to pass through the membrane. • The inter-membrane space is not particularly specialized. Mitochondrial Cristae • There are many small particles (originally called elementary particles, discovered by Roberto Fernandez Peru) that cover the surface of the Cristae. • These particles are now called F F1 0Pase. Mitochondrial Matrix • Contains many soluble enzymes, ribosomes, mitochondrial DNA, and Ca . 2+ Assembly of Mitochondria • Some proteins are synthesized by mitochondria itself using mRNAderived from mitochondrial DNA. • Many proteins however, are constructed using DNAfrom the cell nucleus, these cells are made in the cytoplasm. Proteins • Proteins made in the cytoplasm are tagged and brought by carrier proteins to the mitochondria. • For membrane proteins, there is likely repeating hydrophobic sections and hydrophilic sections that , when arranged in a helix, form a protein that has a hydrophobic side and a hydrophilic side, allowing a side of the protein to dissolve in the membrane. • HSP and GroE1 are a chaperone (heat-shock) proteins within the mitochondria. Glycolysis • Pyruvate is produced via glycolysis, it is transported to the mitochondria and there pyruvate is converted toAcetyl CoenzymeA and NAD(H). Hans Krebs • Was trying to figure out how sugars were processed in the cell. • By crushing tissue (and thus mitochondria) and using paper chromatography, he found many sugars of different types. • He found: ◦ Malate – from apples ◦ Citrate – from lemons, etc. ◦ Fumarate – named because its distillation process produced a lot of smoke. ◦ Aconitic – found in aconites (a family of plants related to buttercups, many are poisonous). He used the Warburg Apparatus • Put a piece of tissue in an Erlenmyer • Connect the flask to a manometer tube containing red liquid, feed the tissue a sugar while keepin
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