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Chapter 3

GEOG 109 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Deferent And Epicycle, Nicolaus Copernicus, Inertial Frame Of Reference

Geography and Environmental Planning
Course Code
GEOG 109

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Astronomy Chapter 3 Notes
-Because we can’t feel Earth’s motion through space, early astronomers created a geocentric model of the
Solar system to explain what they observed in the world around them
-retrograde motion is when the planets stop moving in the eastward motion and move westward across the
sky and then return to their normal eastward travel
-epicycle is a small circle superimposed on each planets larger circle…while traveling along its larger
circle, a planet would at the same time be moving along its smaller circle
-heliocentric theory was that the sun was the center of the solar system (Nicholas Copernicus started this)
-empirical science is the quest to accurately describe patterns in nature
-3 empirical rules that describe the motions of the planets is referred to as Keplers laws
1st law: planets move on elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus
2nd law: planets sweep out equal areas in equal times
3rd law: planetary orbits reveal a harmony of the worlds
Newton’s first law of motion: objects at rest stay at rest; objects in motion stay in motion
Inertial frame of reference: a frame of reference moving in a straight line at a constant speed
Newton’s second law of motion: motion is changed by unbalanced forces
Speed and direction of an objects motion is called velocity
Acceleration: rate at which the velocity of an object changes
The acceleration of an object is proportional to the unbalanced force applied
The stronger the unbalanced force, the greater the acceleration
F = ma
Newton’s third law: whatever is pushed, pushes back
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