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Chapter 5

PSYC 101 Ch. 5 States of Consciousness.pdf

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Towson University
PSYC 101
Barbara Wilson

PSYC 101 Chapter 5: States of Consciousness ▯ ▯ The Nature of Consciousness ▯ What is consciousness?▯ awareness of external events, and self and thought, internal sensations▯ which occur under conditions of arousal ▯ Arousal: ways that awareness is regulated: alert v. relaxed/drowsy ▯ ▯ Levels of Awareness▯ Higher-Level Consciousness: most alert state▯ • Controlled processes ▯ • actively focus efforts toward a goal▯ • requires attention ▯ Lower-Level Consciousness▯ Dialing well-known phone number, expert typist ▯ • Automatic processes▯ • require little attention/conscious effort ▯ • do not interfere with other ongoing activities ▯ • Daydreaming: wandering thoughts▯ fantasy, imagination, rumination ▯ • • potentially useful (reminding. problem solving)▯ Altered States of Consciousness ▯ • drug states▯ • Sleep, fatigue, illness, trauma, sensory depravation ▯ • meditation, hypnosis▯ • mental disorders▯ Subconscious Awareness▯ can occur in an awake state as well as in a sleep state ▯ • Incubation: subconscious process that leads to solution of problem after consciously and carefully thinking bout the problem ▯ • Parallel processing: simultaneous distribution of info across different neuronal pathways ▯ Sleep and Dreams▯ low levels of consciousness of outside world▯ No Awareness▯ unconscious (censored) thought - Freud ▯ non-conscious process- anesthesia, being knocked out ▯ ▯ Biological Rhythms ▯ Biological Rhythms: Periodic / Daily behavioral or physiological fluctuations ▯ controlled by biological clocks ▯ annual or seasonal▯ 24 hour cycles: circadian rhythms ▯ ex.sleep/wake, hormones, light/dark, body temperature, blood sugar/pressure▯ ▯ Biological Clocks▯ Desynchronizing: (throwing off) the Clock ▯ • jet lag▯ • shift-workers change their shifts ▯ • insomnia▯ Resetting the Clock▯ • spend time in the bright lift during the day▯ • Melatonin advances the clock ▯ ▯ Why Do We Need Sleep? ▯ All animals need sleep▯ Adaptive Evolutionary Function ▯ • Safety-need to protect themselves at night▯ • Sleep is a way to conserve energy ▯ Restorative Function ▯ Sleep restores, replenishes, rebuilds the brain and body▯ • Brain Plasticity▯ • enhances synaptic connections▯ • consolidation of memories▯ • Lost sleep can result in lost memories ▯ ▯ Sleep Deprivation ▯ Chronic sleep deprivation results in:▯ • decreased alertness and cognitive performance▯ • inability to sustain attention ▯ • less complex brain activity▯ • adverse effects on decision making ▯ ▯ Stages of Sleep▯ EEG- measure electrical activity in the brain, it identifies stages of wakefulness and sleep ▯ Wakefulness beta waves (alert)▯ Alpha waves (relaxed)▯ ▯ Light Sleep: Stages 1-2▯ Stage 1▯ • theta waves▯ • slower frequency ▯ Stage 2▯ • theta waves▯ • sudden increase in wave frequency ▯ • sleep spindles▯ Deep Sleep: Stages 3-4▯ Stage 3▯ • Less than (< 50%) Delta waves▯ • slowest frequency▯ Stage 4▯ • More than (> 50%) delta waves▯ • difficult to wake sleepers▯ ▯ REM Sleep▯ Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep ▯ • rapid eye movement ▯ • dreaming ▯ ▯ Sleep Cycles▯ • About 45 minutes after entering Stage 1 sleeper reaches stage 4▯ • Early in the night, stage 3 & 4 cons
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