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APY 107 (4)
Chapter 2

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Department
Anthropology
Course
APY 107
Professor
Niki Bertrand
Semester
Spring

Description
Genetic Cells and Molecules Genetics The Study of Genetics Cellular and molecular Interested in genes that reside within the cell Molecular genetics: tend to look for things that can combat disease and can also look at the exact genetic makeup Classical (mendelian) Look at pedigree of related individuals Population genetics Explore genetic variations of populations Phylogenetics Looking at evolutionary relationships between species Behavior genetics Genetic Metaphors Blueprint: hox genes – all shared by invertebrates and vertebrates Recipe: Information Storage: DNA stores many things. Genes are turning on and off of things. The Cell Single Multicellular Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Somatic cells- everything that is not a sex cell Stem cells- when they are present in the embryo they totipotent (undifferentiated; cell can turn anything it wants to) Can turn into different cells Cell Anatomy (Eukaryotic) Nucleus Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Double stranded helix Two primary functions: Got to make proteins for the body  protein synthesis replicates RNA- Ribonucleic Acid Very structurally similar to DNA One stranded Find RNA in nucleus and cytoplasm Mitochondria Makes ATP Endoplasmic Reticulum Provides increase surface area for metabolic reactions to take place The more surface area, the more things that can occur Organelles maintain the cell **KNOW CELLANATOMY (EUKARYOTIC)** DNA Structure 1: The Molecular Level Double Helix Nucleotide (Purines & Pyrimidines) Sugar Phosphate Base Purines Adenine Guanine Pyrimidines Cytosine Thymine DNA Structure Discovery Chargaff et al. Watson & Crick Rosalind Franklin Robbed DNA Function 1: Replication “unzips” matching nucleotides two copies of the DNA 1 strand original / 1 strand synthesized mediated by enzymes DNA polymerase-complex proteins that mediate chemical reactions DNA- Replication Woes Live Forever?? Tortoises, lobsters DNA Function 2: Protein Synthesis Proteins- essential for life, a typical protein can be made up of 200 amino acids Enzymes Cellular function Protein Synthesis Amino acids- 20 types of amino acids and 9 of them are essential Polypeptide chains- chains of amino acids linked together Will differ in length and sequences of amino acids The shape of the protein it folds into will aid the function of the protein Genetic Code Nucleotides Codons- three based codons and each codon represents an amino acid Redundancy- 64 possible combinations Most of our amino acids are represented by codons Genes- fundamental unit of heredity and consists of DNA sequences that carry the information for synthesizing a protein Transcription Nucleus- happens in nucleus and DNA will unwind and that point will serve as the template to make a single-strand RNA (because of Uracil) mRNA- take its information and leave nucleus and go into cytoplasm. Before it gets into the cytoplasm- depending on mRNA , it can be an intron or exon (expressed) Transcription, elimination of intron transcript segments, and splicing of exons Ribosomes – protein synthesis occurs At the ribosome, the mRNA is read. One strand of mRNA can be read by multiple codons. Translation tRNA-transfer RNA – brings with it a specific codon anticodon – on one of the ends and amino acid on another end. (+ shape) protein chain More Complex? Introns Exons- “ex”  expressed 1.1% of our DNA is expressed DNA Structure II: Chromosomes and Cell Division Chromatin Chromosomes are condensed chromatid and each chromosome has its own shape Centromere- condensed and restricted (less likely to change the DNA in that region and makes it more difficult for the enzymes to unwind it) region of the chromosome Diploid vs. Haploid Diploid (2n) = 23 pairs of chromosomes = somatic cells ; have two copies of each gene Haploid (n) = half the number of chromosomes Locus and Allele Locus = location of the gene Allele = Genes come in different varieties Homo
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