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Chapter 5

PSY 101LEC Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Jet Lag, Alpha Wave, Electrocardiography

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Wendy Quinton

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Psychology Chapter 5
Consciousness - The awareness of internal and external stimuli personal
o Your awareness of external events.
o Your awareness of your internal sensations.
o Your awareness of yourself as the unique being having these experiences.
o Your awareness of your thoughts about these experiences.
Typical contents of conscious:
o Envisioning images of things, events not actually present.
o Speaking words to oneself.
o Feeling emotions, such as joy, anger, or anxiety.
o Focusing on sensory aspects of one’s environment.
o Thinking specific thoughts without the thoughts being conveyed in words
or images.
Contents of consciousness are continually changing not standstill.
o William James emphasized the stream of consciousness continually
changing not standstill.
o Freud wanted to examine what go on beneath the surface of this stream
people’s feelings and behaviors are influenced by unconscious needs,
wishes, and conflicts that lie below the surface of conscious awareness.
The stream of consciousness has depth conscious and
unconscious processes are different levels of awareness.
Unconscious When you are not aware of.
o Flipping hair while talking, playing your pen while someone’s talking,
blinking eye constantly.
The electroencephalograph (EEG) A device that monitors the electrical
activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the
surface of the scalp.
o Summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity in the brain Brain Waves
Varies in amplitude (height) and frequency (cycles per second, CPS).
4 types of brainwaves:
Beta 13-24cps Normal waking thoughts, alert problem
Alpha 8-12cps Deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation
Theta 4-7cps Light sleep
Delta under 4cps Deep sleep
Biological rhythms Periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning.
o Organisms have internal “biological clocks” that somehow monitor the
passage of time - natural cycle of change in our body's chemicals or
Circadian Rhythms 24 hours biological cycles found in humans and many
other species.

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o Regulation of sleep, blood pressure, urine production, hormonal
secretions, and other physical functions.
o These cycles affect alertness, short-term memory, and other aspects of
cognitive performance.
Ignoring Circadian Rhythms the quality of your sleep suffers makes you feel
fatigued, sluggish, and irritable during daytime.
It’s easier to fly westward and lengthen your day than fly eastward and shorten
the day.
Melatonin can reduce the effects of jet lag by helping people resynchronize their
biological clocks.
Electromyograph (EMG) - Records muscular activity and tension.
Electrooculograph (EOG) Records eye movements.
Electrocardiograph (EKG) Records the contractions of the heart.
Average takes 25 minutes to fall asleep.
o Depends on how long you have slept.
o Where you are in your circadian cycle.
o Your environment.
o Age.
o Desire to fall asleep.
o Boredom level.
o Caffeine or drug intake.
o Stress level.
Stage 1 is a brief transitional stage of light sleep that lasts only 10-12minutes.
Stage 2 and 3 of the sleep cycle your respiration rate, heart rate, muscle tension,
and body temperature declines.
o Stage 2 light sleep 10-25 minutes.

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o Stage 3 deep sleep 20-40 minutes slow-wave sleep low-frequency
deltas waves become prominent.
o Sleep cycle reverses itself.
REM sleep Rapid eye movements.
o Deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, high frequency brain
waves, and dreaming.
Non-REM sleep Consists of sleep stage 1 through 3, which are marked by an
absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG
People usually repeat the sleep cycle about four times.
First REM sleep period is relatively short, lasting only a few minutes.
Subsequent REM period gets progressively longer, peaking at around 40-60
Non-REM intervals tend to get shorter.
Sleep posture changes occur in between REM sleeps (Body is nearly paralyzed
during REM sleep).
Newborns sleep 6 to 8 times in a 24-hour period total of 16 hours sleep.
REM accounts for about 50% of babies’ sleep as compared with 20% of adults’
sleep but babies decline to roughly 30% during the remainder of the year >
decrease gradually to 20% until during adolescence.
Male, slow-wave sleep (Deep sleep) declines and the time spent in stages 1 and 2
increases slightly women report more insomnia than men do.
Women more likely to get insomnia because hormonal changes during the
menstrual cycle and menopause can affect sleep
Partial sleep deprivation, or sleep restriction Occurs when people make do
with substantially less sleep than normal over a period.
Selective deprivation People were awakened over a period of nights whenever
they began to go into the Rem stage Usually got decent amount of sleep in non-
REM stages, but they were selectively deprived of REM sleep.
o They experience a “Rebound Effect.” – They spend extra time in REM
periods for one to three nights to make up for their REM Deprivation.
REM and slow-wave sleep contribute to firming up learning that takes place
during the day Memory consolidation
REM may promote creative insights related to previous learning.
Sleep improves performance on a complicated decision-making task and makes
more advantageous draws and shows a better understanding of the game
Sleep may not be limited to enhancing memory; sleep may also improve learning
and problem solving.
o Sacrificing sleep in order to fit in additional study can actually backfire,
resulting in lower performances.
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