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Biology (118)
BSC 2010C (60)
Chapter 2

Textbook Notes for Chapter 2

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BSC 2010C
Christa Diercksen

Chapter 2  92 naturally occurring elements, 25 are essential to life  H, N, C, O make up 96% of living matter  trace elements are required in small amounts  definition - elements cant be broken down to any other substance by a chemical reaction  atoms – protons, neutrons, electrons  valence – bonding capacity of an atom, known as the number of electrons NEEDED  valence electrons – number of unpaired electrons in outermost orbital (valence shell), known as number of electrons THERE  octet rule – 8 electrons to obtain stability, one exception is H (only needs two)  3 types of bonds o covalent – SHARE electrons  polar covalent – partial charge formed, unequal, charged  nonpolar covalent – shared equally, no charge  water is polar – H atoms become posit
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