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Chapter 8

COMPLETE Honors General Biology CHAPTER 8 Notes -- 4.0ed this course

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BSC 2010C
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BSC 2010C­­0001  Ch. 8:An Introduction to Metabolism  Characteristics of organisms are all the end-products of the chemical reactions that occur in their cells  Chemical reactions carried out for the purpose of energy transformation or making necessary substances  Energy is described and measured by how it affects matter  Two types of energy:  Kinetic-energy of motion  Potential-stored energy because of structure or location  Example: the energy stored in chemical bonds  D(Delta) G = Free energy available to do work in a cell  A- DG means a rxn gives off energy; it provides power  A+ DG means a rxn needs energy; it will not run unless energy is first added  Every rxn has a specific DG  DG Never changes!  Thermodynamics = study of energy transformations  Two laws govern energy transformation:  First law (energy conservation)  Total amount of energy in universe is constant • Can be transferred or transformed but cannot be created or destroyed  Second law (entropy-disorder- increases)  Every energy transformation increases entropy • Energy available for doing useful work decreases with every transformation  Chemical reactions in cells either store or release energy  Endergonic reactions require input of energy (Positive Delta G)  Energy input equals difference in potential energy between reactants and products  Exergonic reactions release energy (Negative Delta G)  Energy released equals difference in potential energy between reactants and products  Cellular metabolism is sum total of all endergonic and exergonic reactions in cells  ATP is cell’s energy shuttle  Most cell reactions require small amounts of energy  Food storage molecules contain large amounts of energy  Energy in food molecules converted to energy inATP  One food molecule=manyATP (e.g. 1 x glucose=36ATP)  Hydrolysis (add water, break apart) ofATP releases
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