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Chapter 12

CHM 2046 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Supersaturation, Enthalpy, Dynamic Equilibrium


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHM 2046
Professor
Saitta
Chapter
12

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CHM 2046 Textbook Notes
Chapter 13 - Solutions
Solutions:
-Homogenous mixtures
-Seawater: “Thirsty” solution
-Water = solvent; NaCl solute
-Majority component: solvent
-Minority: solute
Aqueous Solution
-Water is the solvent and a solid, liquid or gas is the solute
-ex. Sugar water and salt water
-Nature’s tenancy toward mixing = spontaneous mixing
Common Solutions:
-Gaseous: gas and a gas
-ex. Air (O and N)
-Liquid Solution: gas and liquid, liquid and liquid or liquid and solid
-ex. club soda (CO2 and water), vodka (ethanol and water), seawater (NaCl and water)
-Solid solution: solid and a solid
-ex. Brass (copper and zinc)
Solubility
-Amount of substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent
-Dependent on intermolecular forces and tendency toward mixing
Entropy
-Mixing does not mean lowering potential energy
-Entropy: measure of energy randomization or energy dispersal in a system
-When two gases are mixed, they have greater entropy than when separated
Intermolecular Forces
-Either promote formation of mixture or prevent it
-A solution always forms if solvent-solute interactions are = or > solvent-solvent interactions
and solute-solute interactions
-ex. all dispersion forces = miscible
-Miscible: soluble in each other in all proportions
-If solvent-solute interactions are weaker than solvent-solvent and solute-solute interactions,
then a solution may or may not form dependent on disparity
-Disparity is small = forms; disparity is large = does not form
-“like dissolves like” = polar + polar and non polar + non polar
-water soluble: Vitamin C, Vitamin B5
-fat soluble: Vitamin A, Vitamin K3
Energetics
-Separating solute into particles always endothermic +ΔH
-Separating solvent particles from each other always endothermic
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