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Chapter 42

LIFESCI 2 Chapter Notes - Chapter 42: Parathyroid Gland, Pineal Gland, Endocrine Gland


Department
Life Sciences
Course Code
LIFESCI 2
Professor
Esdin Joseph
Chapter
42

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Chapter 42 Notes
Major Endocrine Glands
o Pineal gland
o Hypothalamus
o Pituitary gland
o Parathyroid glands
o Thyroid gland
o Thymus gland
o Heart
o Stomach
o Adrenal gland
o Kidney
o Pancreas
o Small Intestine
o Ovaries/Testes
Pure/Primary: Release and store hormones only
Mixed gland: Part of the endocrine system as well as other organs
Edorie glad → Blood → Target ell → Respose
o Hormones reach every cell, but are specific by a receptor
protein, allowing only certain cells to respond
o Receptors can be within or on the cell depending on hormone
permeability
Extracellular receptors are hydrophilic
Intracellular receptors are hydrophobic
Chemical Structure of Hormones
o Hormones can be made of steroids (hydrophobic/lipophilic;
membrane permeable) or peptides (hydrophilic/lipophobic;
membrane impermeable) or amine (single modified amino acids;
depends of amino acids)
o Their synthesis and secretion vary
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2
Peptide
Hormones are synthesized in the ribosomes and RER
as preprohormones and get converted to
prohormone
o Preprohormone: inactive hormone
Packaged in Golgi as prohormone
o Their chemical structure determines their mechanisms of action
on target cell
Mode of Travel
o Peptide Hormones
Vesicle (to pass through the erae) → Eotosis
fro glad ito lood → Free floatig through lood due
to water solubility
o Steroid Hormone
No vesile → Eotosis → Trasport protei i lood
takes in due to water insolubility
Mechanisms of Steroids Action of Target Cell
o Hormone can easily permeate the plasma membrane
o Receptor within cell
Nuclear receptor
Binds to DNA at the Hormone Response Element to
turn on a specific gene to elicit a physiological
response
Cytoplasmic receptor
Mechanisms of Peptide Action
o Hormone cannot permeate the plasma membrane
o Hormone binds to extracellular receptor to active a G protein
intermediary
Hormonal Secretion
o Humoral Control
Gland measures a certain parameter in the blood
Parathyroid gland
Low Ca2+ level in blood
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