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Chapter 1-2

LING 165C Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-2: Implicature, Syntactic Category, Principle Of Compositionality

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Dylan Bumford

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Chapter 3
Direct Compositionality:
each syntactic rule which predicts the existence of some well-formed
expression is paired with a semantic rule which gives the meaning of the output expression in
terms of the meanings of the input expressions
3.1 Building a fragment: First steps
- Every expression of a language can be seen as a triple of
<[sound], syntactic category, [[meaning]]>
- A rule is thus something which takes one or more triples as input and yields a triple as
-TR-1: the conjunction rule
- Syncategorematically: e.g TR-1 introduces and
directly as part of the rule rather than
treating it as an item in the lexicon with a grammatical category
3.2 Implicatures vs truth conditions
- The or conjugation implied that only one of the two conjuncts is true, this is just a
suggestion and is what is known as an implicature rather than being part of the truth
3.3 Folding in worlds
- TR-1 and TR-2 both ignore the fact that the value of a sentence is not 1 or 0 but a
function of type <w, t>
- INT-TR-1 (Intensional-TR-1): includes the world argument
3.4 Negation: A first pass
- Not is not prefixed at the beginning of a sentence
- Since doesn’t directly fit we current development of the compositionality, will instead
enrich our fragment with TR-3 and its intensional counterpart INT-TR-3 that specifies [it
is not the case that]
Chapter 4
4.1 Noun phrases
- Refers to all nouns as NPs
- We can just simply add NPs into the world, but encounters the same problem with
sentences where the meaning of a phrase depends largely on the context in which the
world is in
- So the fix
- The intention (the actual meaning) of an NP is a function from worlds and times
to individuals, that is, some function, <s, e>
- Will treat the set of individuals as separate from the set of worlds
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