Section Mental Disorders

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DSM-V - Lists over 500 major disorders- from depression to sexual disorders, to sleep, to drugs & alcohol - Disorders diagnosed from - - Signs - what is visible to others - how patient presents self and acts - symptoms - how patient feels and actually feelings/experiences - Anyone can develop mental disorder - often genetic basis - Mental disorders are wrongly a sign of shame & embarrassment - not sign of weakness/moral failure - Many mental disorders are actually physical disorder - often in brain - Can rarely be cured but can be improved or medicated - Many self medicate with alcohol or drugs to help mental illness - in long run ineffective Common Mental Disorders Mood Disorder Depression - Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, guilt - Loss of interest in everyday activities and pleasures - Suicidal thoughts and impulses - often they act on these - Some suffer from chronic depression - Usually occurs as episodes that last a few months - DOnt confuse with mourning a loss - Usually no apparent reason why they are depressed - ALEX Treatment - Temporary loss of gray matter - unmyelinated nerve fibers) in neocortex - Reduced levels on neurotransmitters - sero, dopa Antidepressant Medications - Restore loss of gray matter by triggering neurotrophic factors in brain - SSRI Selective Serotonin Reuptake - lexapro, prozac, celexa, zoloft - Antidepressant block reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephne - SNRI - cymbalta & effexor - Some drugs are sedating others are activating - not sure why some work of some and others done Manic Depressive Disorder - Bipolar - Bipolar 1 - mostly mania, Bipolar 2 - mostly depressive - Fast speech, racing thoughts, careless impulsive actions, insomnia, rapid move switch - Mania & Depression go together to = Bipolar - Cause is unknown - possibly involves unstable calcium metabolism at pre synaptic membrane - Treatments are mood stabilizers - - Lithium carbonate, Lamicta, Topamax - People often dont like taking drugs because they take both mood stabilizers & antidepressant meds - Untreated the suicide rate among bipolar people is high Anxiety Disorders - Many kinds but all involve excessive anxiety - - apprehensiveness, sometimes antic attacks - Over active of sympathetic nervous system - - high heart rate, blood prussure, rapid breathing - rush of blood to muscles, excessive swatting Generalized Anxiety Disorder - worrying hard to control, difficult to think about anything else - drugs target sympathetic nervous system - GABA - gamma amino butyric acid - Drugs that reduce anxiety by mimicking GABA - - alcohol - anti anxiety meds - benzodiazepines, Xanax, Valium, Klonopin - bad to mix both because can cause overdose - Anti depressant that increase serotoni also release anxiety over long term - these are non addictive Obsessive Compulsive Dosorder -
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