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Chapter Reading

MMW 14 Chapter Reading: MMW 14 Chapter : Hobbes -- LeviathanPremium

2 pages28 viewsWinter 2019

Department
Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 14
Professor
Edmond Chang
Chapter
Reading

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Of the Natural Condition of Mankind as Concerning their Felicity and Misery
All men are equal enough that no one can claim more rights than another
Even the weakest man can kill the strongest
All men are about the same in intelligence and wisdom
This refers to natural wisdom only, not the kind that comes from schooling
He argues that people who go to school and learn things are not necessarily
smarter than those that went to school because anyone can be taught to do
something
Greater equality in intelligence than in strength
Since all men are about equal, it means that they all hope to gain the same things
This leads to men becoming enemies and the basis for conflict and war
Every man is a danger to every other man
Since every man is a danger to every other man, it stands to reason that the objective of
men would be to subdue as many other men as possible so no one can be a threat to
him
The end goal is to rule the world
Three major causes of conflict
Competition
Men invade for gain
Diffidence
Men invade for safety
Glory
Men invade for reputation
When there is no common power holding all men in check, their natural state is war
This doesnt mean that theyre constantly fighting, it just means that theyre
constantly ready to
This makes them more prone to fighting
This war is of every man against every other man
The result of being in a constant state of war is that nothing can get done and there can
be no society, culture, innovation, or learning
People are constantly living in fear and too afraid of their things being stolen to
create anything
The natural nature of man is distrusting and selfish, but that is why there are laws in
place to control what people can and cannot do, along with this, there can be no laws
until the people agree on someone to make them
There are a lot of principalities and kingdoms that live in a perpetual state of war with
one another, but since they ensure the safety and productivity of their subjects, there is a
better quality of life and this is more advanced than the base state of being
In mans natural state, there are no morals and no justice or injustice
You need an overarching power to tell you what is right and wrong and to tell you
what constitutes justice (it varies)
Morals and justice are things you get when you are part of a society, not when
you are alone
Things that make men want peace
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