Comparative Politics Today Chapter 18 Notes.doc

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Political Science
Kaare Strom

Comparative Politics Today Chapter 18 NotesThe declining quality of elections persistent inequalities and failures of Government performance all contribute to popular skepticism about democracy Olusegun Obasanjo President of Nigeria in 1999 His election marked the transition to democracy After his election a new democratic legislature followed a few weeks later Into thousand and three Pres of us on hole was reelected in a landslide and his party also captured most other important political officesUmar Musa YarAdua He was the president elected into thousand and seven This only happened after a failed attempt by Obasanjos supporters to change the constitution to extend his stay in office another turn The Constitution faced a fresh test when Pres YarAdua disappeared from public view after fouling seriously ill in November 2009After months of inaction the national assembly voted to appoint the vice president as acting presidenteven though it lacked explicit constitutional authority to do soWhen YarAdua passed away in April 2010 Nigeria seem to survive another transition when VP Goodluck Jonathan was officially sworn in as presidentGoodluck JonathanPresident of Nigeria starting in 2010 He took over from being vice president after former Pres YarAdua past away in April 2010 Beyond these political test Nigerians remain frustrated with the failure of democracy to harness their countrys wealth to provide basic human needs education partible water reliable transportation and communicationswith poor government performance persistent secretarian tensions along ethnic regional and religious lines and struggling democratic institutions the a little more of authoritarianism is not entirely fadedHausa The people that began forming city states in northern Nigeria between 1000 and 1200 CE and came under the influence of Islam no later than the 15th century By the next century hausa princes were international rivals of Morocco and the Ottoman EmpireTheir fortunes were decisively changed when nonHausa court officials rose against them in the early 19 century which were the Fulani Fulani These were the nonhouse court officials who rose against the Hausa in the early 19 century These were a people with their origins set in western Sudan who had entered into the Hausa lands as herders and more importantly as teachers traders and eventually court advisersThese people controlled most of the north until the British defeated them in 1903Sokoto is still the Muslim religious capital of Nigeria The Fulani and Hausa have become so intertwined that their culture which is dominant in the north is usually referred to as HausaFulani Yoruba These people in the forest region of the Southwest begin forming kingdoms between 12 and 15 centuries at oyo Ife and Benin In the 17th and 18th centuries That kingdom of Oyo subdued its rivals and extended his control over the entire southwestern part of NigeriaIgbo Communities in the Southeast that govern the village or extended family levelPeople inhabiting the land that now constitutes Nigeria organize themselves as states without kingdoms The Yoruba and the Igbo examples illustrate how accountability and limited government come in a variety of forms The British first became interested in Nigeria through trade with West Africa but trade of any importance was dealing with slaves In 1807 the British Parliament outlawed the slave trade The British Navy set themselves up along the west African coast to cut off the trade British people establish themselves more often and began to intervene in local politics favoring those candidates with ruling positions who would give them commercial advantages over other European traders The British first established commercial dominance over Nigeria and then eventually political control The British were able to get a treaty of protection for trade along the coast In the conference of Berlin in 1984 the European powers decided to seize control of the continent of Africa by dividing it into spheres of influence rather than merely trading with its rulers and merchantsEven though climate zones run east to west the Imperial boundaries were established north to south intersecting the claimant sounds This virtually guarantee that the colonies established would be composed of peoples coming from vastly different cultures due to the vastly different climate zones Nigeria first became an entity in 1914 when the northern and southern protectorates and Lagos were brought under a single administration but the northern and southern provinces continued to govern separately The north proved to be the perfect setting for the indirect rule elaborated by the governor Lord Lugard the British administration would not intervene in directly into everyday life in its colonies but would support the rule of traditional leaders within Nigeria This was the most efficient means of controlling the colonies Southern Nigeria however did not have any traditional kings or chiefs Because of this the applicability of indirect rule certain distinguish further the political experiences of the regions complicating the strategy of indirect rule The British converted peasant societies into an export market economy They also enforced the collection of taxes which eroded the foundations of traditional role They also integrated a modern system of transportation and communication necessary to stimulate commerce This made people move from countrysides two cities and also upset a lot of people The British also brought missionaries of many denominations and with the spread of Christianity came also the
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