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Chapter 1

PSY 2012 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Wilhelm Wundt, Cheeseburger, Emotional Reasoning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 2012
Professor
Nicole Renee Dorey
Chapter
1

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Psychology
Cha pte r 1:
Pre s e nta tions
Lecture 1
Wha t is P s ychology?
- Definition: scientific ps ychology s eeks to pre dict and e xpla in be havior.
- Scientific findings are used to improve live s of people with normal huma n beha vior.
- Mos t ps ychologis t study norma l huma n be ha vior.
- Ja me s -La nge The ory of Emotions : Emotions come a bout as a result of physiologica l
cha nge s.
Cha lle nge s of studying ps ychology
- Intriguing Challe nge s
- Actions a re multiply de te rmined: produce d by mini-fa ctors
- ** Actions are produce d by ma ny fa ctors a nd we ne e d to be ske ptica l of s ingle -va ria ble
expla na tions of be ha vior.
- Psychologica l influe nce s a re rarely inde pe nde nt of e a ch othe r.
- Individua l diffe re nce s : Pe ople a re a ll diffe re nt which ma ke s ps ychology hard.
- ** Thinking, e motion, pe rs ona lity, a nd be ha vior.
- Reciproca l De te rminis m: mutua lly influe nce e a ch othe r beha vior.
- Cultura l Diffe re nce s
- ** Na ive rea lis m: be lief tha t we s e e the world precis e ly a s it is.
- Our te nde ncie s toward na ive re a lis m ca n lea d us to dra w incorre ct conclusions a bout huma n
na ture .
- In many ca s es, “believing is seeing”: Our be lie fs s ha pe our huma n perce ptions of the world,
often in ways we don't rea lize .
Psychology is a s cie nce
- **Scientific theory: a n expla na tion for a la rge numbe r of findings in the na tura l world, including
the psych world.
- multiple obs e rva tions put together
- Hypothe s is: testable prediction
- Misconce ptions about the orie s :
- 1. A theory e xpla ins one s pecific event.
- 2. A theory is just n e ducate d gue s s .
Scie ntific Proce s s
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- Psychology is hard becaus e of confounding va riable s, beca us e the y might a lte r the re s ults of
your s tudy.
- Psychology is a s e t of me thods use d to colle ct information a bout phe nome na , in a pa rticula r
are of inte re s t and build a re lia ble ba s e of knowle dge a bout them.
- The ory vs. Hypothe s is
- The ory is a e xpla nation for a la rge number of findings in the natura l world. The y a re
te s ta ble and a re shown to be fake , if untrue.
- If s omething is a the ory it is ve ry clos e to be ing fact.
- Hypothe s is is a n e xpla nation a s to the ca use of an e ve nt. (If and the n sta te me nt)
- Mos t the orie s are hypothe s is unles s the re is a lot of re s e a rch done a nd you can come
close to proving a point, the n it can turn into a theory.
Fra ming a problem
- The e xpla na tions tha t we come up with a re ba s e d on little informa tion, a nd ha ve a lot of our
opinion in it. (bia sed)
- Confirmation bia s : people fa il to tes t the ir contra diction. We only look a t info that confirms our
own bias .
- To a void this we ne e d to adopt the scie ntific a pproa ch.
- ** Be lief perseverance : we don't wa nt to know the fa cts be ca use we don't wa nt to know tha t
we a re wrong.
- ** Me ta physica l cla ims : as s e rtions about the e xis te nce of God, the s oul, and the afte rlife.
- It is importa nt to know tha t these cla ims diffe r from s cie ntific claims a nd the we cant te s t
the m using the s cie ntific me thods .
Perce ption
- All s cie ntis t
- acquire knowle dge using the s cie ntific me thods and technique s .
- are s ke ptica l a nd don't acce pt e verything a t fa ce va lue .
Scie ntific Proce s s
- All s cie ntific dis ciple s s ha re ba sic a ss umptions about nature :
- A physica l unive rs e e xis ts .
- There ma y be ra ndomne s s a nd thus unpredicta bility in the unive rs e , but it’s prima rily a n
orde rly s yste m.
- We ca n dis cove r the principle s of the univers e through res e arch.
- Knowle dge of the universe is always incomple te .
True s cie nce vs. P s eudos cie nce (fa ls e s cie nce)
- Fa ls e s cie nce: cla ims a ppe ar to be s cie ntific but the y lack scie ntific evide nce, and the
re s e a rch conducte d is vague a nd s loppy.
- Ex: The ra peutic touch, a s trology, e xtra s e ns ory pe rce ption.
- Wa rning s igns of ps e udoscie nce
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