AFP- Ch 4.docx

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University of Georgia
International Affairs
INTL 4250
Loch K Johnson

Chapter 4 - The Formative Years of American Foreign Policy • Nation Building, 1776-1898 o US tried to remain detached eatly in it's history, but was involved in some skirmishes here and there o military and political entanglements abroad were avoided o diplomatic representation overseas was the primary involvement overseas o the question now has become whether to turn to military and political isolationism or join in internationalism • Apart from the World o early history did not involve leaders wanting to be a beacon of hope o after the Revolution, the US just wanted some breathing room o this isolationism was backed up by protection from the Pacific and Atlantic o but interests in Canada and Louisiana, Spanish interest in Florida and the South, and Russian interest inAlaska and the north loomed o diplomatic representation by Thomas Jeffereson, Ben Franklin, and others helped boostAmerican diplomacy • Ambivalence Toward Europe o the 1840's and 1850;s began involvingAmerica in commercial opportunities overses through a series of treatie, but military and political engagements were widely avoided o Jay Treaty of 1794 - restored commercial ties withAmerican archenemy Britain  inacted by Supreme Court justice John Jay o rapproachment - the establishment of cordial relations through diplomatic overtures to heal breaches between nations over shipping and tariffs o XYZ affair - French covert action  when three frenchmen tried to extort a cash payment in return for a negotiated resolution of hostilities between France and US in wake of undeclared war o leaders tried to keep trade and politics seperated o Jefferson was prepared to join Great Britain in a military engagement against France and Napoleon Bonaparte if he did not sell them New Orleans o Jefferson also proposed a scheme to overthrow the Bashaw of Tripoli who had disrupted Anerican shipping in theMediterranean • Expansionist Stirrings o 1803, the Lousiana Purchase expelled the French out of the US  Jefferson worried he may have overstepped his bounds when he bought it for $15m instead of $10 to pay Napoleon o Impressment - when british forces used naval recruitment by force: kidnapped Americans to serve as sailor on British warships against the French fleet o EmbargoAct in 1807 - prevented the export ofAmerican goods to Britain after the British attacked the USS Chespeake  very unpopular with the British loyalists in New England o War Hawk interest group o US faced two opposing forces - the British and the NativeAmericans  War of 1812  DC was torched by British  British forces outmatched theAmericans except for Andrew Jackson's win in New Orleans and Oliver Hazard Perry's win at Lake Erie  war came to an end in 1814, as bothAmericans and British were tired of the fighting  Treaty of Ghent - ended the secondAmerican and British war in 1814 o Rush-Bagot Pact of 1817 - Americas first significant arms control pact, the British and Americans contracted to remove their ships from the Great Lakes o US turned to Spanish adversaries in Florida  led byAndrew Jackson  Adams-Onis Treaty of 1821 - the Florida territory in exchange for assurances from the US that the Spanish could enjoy unfettered rule in Texas and the Southwest • Monroe Delivers a Lecture o Monroe Doctrine - "the nations of the Western Hemisphere were not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power" • Westward Ho! o American "exceptionalism" made way forAmerican leadership and calling in the rest of the world o Manifest Destiny - coined by John L. Sullivan "to overspread and to posses the whole of the continent which Providence has given to us" o creation of Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroad companys o War against Mexico in 1846  Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) - peace treaty all New Meico, California, and an extension of Texas boundary of the Rio Grande o Extraterritoriality - the purpose behind this legal doctrine was to seek extension of US law to coverAmerican citizens in foreign nations  China for the purpose of negotiating access to markets for American goods o Gunboat Diplomacy - an intimidating display of military force  Commodore Matthew C. Perry steamed into the Bay of Yedo with an armada of US naval ships worthy of a major power o the 1807 Prohibiting Importation of Slaves that outlawed the shipment of slaves into the US began dismantling foreign and domestic relationships in the N/S US • Civil War o South almost allied with Britain for cotton and textile industries o France invaded Mexico at the same time, but the US forced them out o Civil War marked a low ebb in foreign policy for US • ANation Growing Bolder o purchased theAlaskan terriroty from Russia for $7.2mil  this marked a SecState WH Seward diplomaticAFP negotiation o Olney corollary - SecState Olney informed Lincoln "th
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