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Chapter 1

EXSS 175 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Erector Spinae Muscles, Long Thoracic Nerve, Serratus Anterior Muscle

Exercise And Sport Science
Course Code
EXSS 175
Johna Register- Mihalik

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EXSS 175 Anatomy Mnemonics
General Terms
o Supine vs. prone body position "Supine is on your spine.Therefore, prone's the "other"
o Supine vs. prone body position Know SUPination isyour hand while carrying a bowl of
SOUP. Your face follows where yourpalm is facing [i.e. up]. Put a hand-puppet on your hand
while hand is insupination and the puppet will be the supine position.
By Body Part
o Cervical vertebra: landmarks at each level "NoaHTold MariaH To Try Cervical
Counting":Nose (base), Hard palate: C1Teeth: C2Mandible, Hyoid bone:
C3Thyroid cartilage (upper): C4Thyroid cartilage (lower): C5Cricoid cartilage:
C6Cricoid cartilage (just below): C7
o L4 landmark: 2 items "B4U" [before you]:Bifurcation of aortaL4Umbilicus
o Vertebrae: recognizing a thoracic from lumbar Examinevertebral body
shape:Thoracic is heart-shaped body since your heart is in yourthorax.Lumbar
is kidney-bean shaped since kidneys are in lumbararea.
o Oblique muscles: direction of externals vs. internals "Handsin your
pockets":When put hands in your pockets, fingers now lie on top of external obliques
andfingers point their direction of fibers: down and towards midline.· Note:
"oblique" tells that must be going at an angle.· Internal obliques are at right angles to
external. Externals are hands towards your back pockets.
o Serratus Anterior: nerve vs. blood LoNg thoracic: NerveLAteral thoracic: Artery
o Serratus anterior: innervation SALT:Serratus Anterior = Long Thoracic.
o Erector spinae muscles: order Spinalis is on the spine (most medial).Iliocostalis is
on the ribs (most lateral).And it's a Long (Longissimus) way between the spine and
the ribs!
Erector spinae muscles (lateral to medial)
"I Like Standing"
"I Long for Spinach"- "Long" and "Spinach" help you
rememberthe muscles' names.
o Abdominal muscles "Spare TIRE around their abdomen":Transversus
abdominisInternal abdominal obliqueRectus abdominisExternal abdominal
o Inguinal canal: walls "MALT: 2M, 2A, 2L,2T":· Starting from superior, moving
around in order to posterior:Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles:· internal oblique
Muscle· transverse abdominus MuscleAnterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses:·
Aponeurosis of external oblique· Aponeurosis of internal obliqueLower wall (floor):
2 Ligaments:· inguinal Ligament· lacunar LigamentPosterior wall: 2Ts:·
Transversalis fascia· conjoint Tendon
Lower Extremity
o Menisci attachments in knee "Each meniscus has somethingattached to it":The
medial meniscus has the medial collateral ligament.The lateral meniscus is attached to
the popliteal muscle.

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o Popliteal fossa: medial to lateral arrangment "ServeAnd Volley Next
Ball":Semimembranosus/ SemitendonosusArteryVeinNerveBiceps
femoris· Lateral and medial heads of Gastrocnemius are inferior borders.
o Popliteal fossa: muscles arrangement The two Semi's gotogether, Semimembranosus
and Semitendonosus - Medial.Therefore, Biceps Femoris has to be lateral.Of the
semi's, to remember which one is superficial: the Tendonosus is onTop.
o Femoral triangle: boundaries "So I MayAlways Love Sally":Superiorly: Inguinal
ligamentMedially: Adductor longusLaterally: Sartorius
o Femoral triangle: contents (Lateral to Medial):
NAVY:In order from lateral to medial:NerveArteryVeinY of the
groin· Alternatively: Y = Y-fronts [male underwear].
NAVEL: Nerve (directly behind sheath)Artery (within sheath)Vein
(within sheath)Empty space (between vein and lymph)Lymphatics (with
deep inguinal node)· Nerve/Artery/Vein are all called Femoral.
o Hip: lateral rotators From top to bottom:PiriformisGemellus superiorObturator
internusGemellus inferiorObturator externusQuadratus femoris· Alternatively:
*My Favorite: "P-GO-GO-Q"
"Piece Goods OftenGo On Quilts
o Genu valgum vs. genu vargum Genu valGUM (knock-knee):knees are GUMmed
together.· Varum (bowleg) is the other by default, or Far rhymes with Var,so knees
are far apart.
o Obturator canal: relations of structures "Who's flying inthe top of Obturator canal?
Obviously Not A Vein!": ObturatorNerveArteryVein
o Muscles of pes anserinus (the muscles attached to tibia'smedial side) "A Goat
between Two Sheep":Gracilus is betweenSartorius andSemitendonosus
o Sacral plexus: posterior components "Common GluttonsFor
Punishment":Common fibularGluteals (superior and inferior)Femoral cutaneous
(Posterior)Piriformis nerve
o Thigh: innervation by compartment "MAP OF Sciatic":Medial compartment:
ObturatorAnterior compartment: FemoralPosterior compartment: Sciatic· So all
the thigh muscles in that compartment get innervated by that nerve.
o Psoas major: innervation If you hit L2, 3, 4Psoas gets sore!
o Lumbar plexus "I, I Get LostOn Fridays":Iliohypogastric [L1]Ilioinguinal
[L1]Genitofemoral [L1, L2]Lateral femoral cutaneous [L2, L3]Obtruator [L2, L3,
L4]Femoral [L2, L3, L4]
o Adductor magnus innervation "AM SO!":Adductor Magnus innervated by Sciatic
and Obturator.
o Femoral triangle: boundaries "Femoral triangle is shapedlike a SAIL":
SartoriusAdductor longusInguinal Ligament
o Femoral artery deep branches "Put My LegDown Please":Profundus femoris
(deep femoral artery)Medial circumflex femoral arteryLateral circumflex femoral
arteryDescending genicular arteriesPerforating arteries
o Saphenous veins: path of great vs. small at malleolus "MAGdelainehas varicose
veins" [The saphenous veins are important for varicose veins]:Medial malleolus,
Anterior to malleolus, and Great saphenousgo together.Then the opposites of these
go together: Small saphenous is posteriorto the lateral malleolus.

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Lower Leg/Ankle/Foot
o Tibia vs. fibula: sizes The Fibula is thin like a Flute.The Tibia is thick like a Tuba.
o Tibia vs. fibula: which is lateral? The FibuLA is LAteral.
o Tarsal bones "Traverse City (is) Noted(for) MIchigan's Lovely
Cherries":TalusCalcaneus(new row)Navicular(new row)Medial
Intermediate cuneiformsLateral cuneiformCuboid
Tiger Cubs NeedMILC
o Cruciate ligaments: insertions PAMS APPLES:Posterior [passes] Anterior [inserts]
Medially.Anterior [passes] Posteriorly [inserts] Laterally.
o Tarsal tunnel: contents "Tiny Dogs AreNot Hunters":· From superior to
inferior:T: Tibialis posteriorF: flexor Digitorum longusA: posterior tibial
ArteryN: tibial NerveH: flexor Hallucis longus
o Navicular contacts 3 of 5 cuneiform bones "Navicularis like the Navigator logo":
Therefore, cuboid has to contact 2 of the 5.
o Medial malleolus: order of tendons, artery, nerve behind it"Tom, Dick, And
Nervous Harry":· From anterior to
posterior:TibialisDigitorumArteryNerveHallucis· Full names for these
are: Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus,Posterior Tibial Artery, Posterior
Tibial Nerve, Flexor Hallucis Longus.· Alternatively: "Tom, Dick ANd Harry".·
Alternatively: "Tom, Dick And Not Harry".
o Ankle: anterior compartment of leg contents "The HamptonsAre Never Dull
Parties":· From medial malleolus:Tibialis anterior tendon(Extensor) Hallucis
longusArtery (anterior tibial)Nerve (deep peroneal)(Extensor)
DigitorumPeroneus tertius
o Plantarflexion vs. dorsiflexion Plantar flexionoccurs when you squish a Plant with
your foot.
o Soleus vs. gastrocnemius muscle function "Stand onyour Soles. Explosive
gas":You stand on soles of your shoes, so Soleus is for posture.Gasoline is
explosive, so Gastrocnemius is for explosive movement.
o Inversion vs. eversion muscles in leg Second letter rule forinversion/eversion:·
Eversion muscles:pErineus longuspErineus brevispErineus terius· Inversion
muscles:tIbialis anteriortIbialis
o Leg: anterior muscles of leg "The Hospitals Are Not Dirty Places":T: Tibialis
anteriorH: extensor Hallucis longusA: anterior tibial ArteryN: deep fibular
NerveD: extensor Digitorum longusP: Peronius tertius [aka fibularis tertius]
Upper Extremity
Shoulder/Upper Arm
o Elbow joint: radius vs. ulna ends CRAzy TULips:Capitalum = RAdiusTrochlear
= ULnar
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