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Chapter 11

BIOL 150 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Apoplast, Guanosine Triphosphate, Plasmodesma

Course Code
BIOL 150
Jeffrey Carmichael

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Chapter 11
● Extracellular structure helps define cell's shape and either attaches it to another cell or acts as
first line of defense against the outside world
● Terms:
β—‹ ECM (extracellular matrix) (fiber composite)
*provides structural support*
● Animal ECM contains much more protein relative to carbohydrate than does a cell wall
● Terms:
β—‹ Collagen (fibrous component of animal ECM is dominated by cable-like protein)
β—‹ Proteoglycans
β—‹ Tissues (consist of similar cells that function as unit)
β—‹ Integrins (membrane proteins)
β—‹ Laminins
β—‹ Primary cell wall (fiber composite)
*secrete when plant cells first form*
● Microfibrils (stout, cable-like structures)
● Pectins (gelatinous polysaccharides)
*molecules that are used to thicken jams and jellies*
● The concentration of solutes is higher inside cell than outside, causing water to enter cell via
osmosis (primary cell wall)
● Terms:
β—‹ Turgor pressure (force exerted by cell against wall)
*turgor pressure forces wall to elongate and expand, resulting in cell growth*
● Expansins (disrupt hydrogen bonds that cross-link microfibrils in wall, allowing
microfibrils to slide past one another)
● Secondary cell wall (between plasma membrane and primary cell wall)
● Lignin (complex polymer that forms an exceptionally rigid network)
● Multicellularity
● Epithelia (singular: epithelium) (tissues that form external and internal surfaces)
*function as barriers between external and internal environment of plants and animals*
● Tight junction (cell-cell attachment composed of specialized proteins in plasma
membranes of adjacent animal cells)
*prevent solutions from flowing through space between 2 cells*
● Although tight junctions are very good at holding cells close together, they are weak adhesions
that can be easily broken
● Terms:
β—‹ Desmosome (cell-cell attachment particularly common in animal epithelial cells and
certain muscle cells)
β—‹ Selective adhesion (cells begin to aggregate based on their origin-adhering to other cells
of the same tissue type)
β—‹ Antibody (protein produced by an immune response that binds specifically to unique
type of molecule, often another protein)
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