BIOS 111 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Glycocalyx, Basal Body

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7 Feb 2017
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BIOS 111 Chapter 4 - Anatomy of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Vocab/Notes
Prokaryotes are structurally simpler than eukaryotes
Fungi, yeast, mod, protozoa, and algae are eukaryotes.
Most bacteria are found sticking to solid surfaces, held by glycocalyx which is the glue
the holds it down.
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes a chemically similar
They both contain nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
They use the same metabolic reactions
They both make energy and protein similarly
Prokaryotes:
DNA is not enclosed in a membrane; it is a singular, circularly arranged
chromosome
DNA does not have histones associated with it.
Lack membrane-bound organelles
Cell walls contain peptidoglycan
Divide by binary fission
Binary fission: DNA is copied and cell splits in two
Eukaryotes:
DNA found in nucleus, which is separated from cytoplasm
DNA is in multiple chromosomes
DNA is associated with histones and nonhistones
Contain lots of membrane-bound organelles
Have simple cell walls, if they have cell walls
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Cell division requires mitosis or meiosis
Morphology: shape
Bacteria are differentiated by morphology, chemical composition, nutritional
requirements, biochemical activities, and energy sources
99% of bacteria exist in biofilms
Biofilm: group of microorganisms stuck to each other and a surface
Bacteria basic shapes: spherical coccus, rod-shapes bacillus, and spiral
Cocci are round but can be oval, long, or flat on one side
Cocci can remain together when divided
Diplococci: cocci that remain together in pairs
Streptococci: cocci that remain together in chains
Tetrads: cocci that remain together in two planes and groups of
four
Sarcinae: cocci that remain together in three planes, in cubes of
eight
Staphylococci: cocci that divide into multiple planes and are clustered
Bacillus refers to both a bacterial shape and a genus; bacillus often form log,
twisted chains
Vibrio: curved, spiral bacteria
Spirillum: helical shape like a corkscrew with more than one curve. Use flagella
Spirochete: helical and flexible spirals. Move by axial filaments
Shape of bacteria is determined by heredity
Monomorphic: most bacteria maintain a single shape
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Pleomorphic: bacteria that can have many shapes
Bacteria have nucleotides
Capsule: glycocalyx that’s organized and firmly attached to bacterial cell walls.
Determined if present by negative staining
Slime layer: glycocalyx unorganized and loosely attached to the bacterial cell wall
Capsules are important in determining bacterial virulence
Virulence: degree to which the pathogen causes disease
Capsules protect pathogens from phagocytosis
Phagocytosis: the ingestion and digestion of microorganisms and other
particles. Ex: unencapsulated streptococcus pneumoniae can’t cause
pneumonia
Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS): protects cells, facilitates
communication, and enables cells to survive by attaching to various surfaces
Glycocalyx allows bacteria to attach and grow on stuff
Glycocalyx protects cells from dehydration and inhibits movement of nutrients
out of the cell
Flagellum: long filamentous appendage that propels bacteria through fluid
Atrichous: bacteria that lack flagella
Peritrichous: bacteria that have flagella distributed all over the cell
Polar: flagella at one or both poles/ends of the cell
Monotrichous: a single flagella at one pole
Lophotrichous: lots of flagella at one pole
Amphitrichous: flagella at both poles
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