ANTH 3110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Meriam Report, Navajo Language, Heritage Language

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27 Jun 2019
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Lomawaima and McCarty
ANTH 3110, Summer 2019
Democracy, Diversity, and Native Peoples
American Indian survival constitutes real and meaningful diversity at the heart of our nation
Diversity and democracy as linked
Democracy is a value, policy, practice that respects, protects, and promotes human rights
Safe vs Dangerous Difference
Contest between Native educational sovereignty and federal constraints constitutes the heart of
story
Struggle between tribal aspirations and federal constraints on American Indian education
Struggle for self-determination may be conceptualized as a struggle between 2 different and
coexistent realities
Tribal Sovereignty
Right of a people to self-government, self-determination, and self-education
Right to linguistic and cultural expression according to local languages and norms
Tribes have singular legal status that both predates and is recognized by the US Constitution
Struggle for Self-Determination in Indigenous Education
Struggles and Reforms Within American Indian Education, 1900-69
1898 - president McKinley nominated woman to federal political position as Superintendent
of Indian Schools, racist and had disdain for Indian cultural beliefs
1920s - limited educational changes
1926 - Secretary of Interior asked research firm to survey condition of American Indians -
Meriam Report
1946 - Chairman Henry Chee Dodge argued in front of Senate Committee on Indian Affairs
1960s - political and cultural activism swept the nation
Local, tribal, and national Indian leaders and young people spoke up throughout the 60s and
70s
Rise of Indigenous Community-Controlled Schools
Ideal cause to examine contemporary developments in education
1970 turning point for Indian Affairs
Rough Rock Demonstration School
Bilingual/bicultural education complemented school's community outreach focus and
included Navajo language and cultural studies
By 1971, 4 other Indian communities contracted to operate their own schools
Indian Education Act in 1972 and Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act
in 1975
34 indigenous community-controlled schools by 1978
Local initiatives linked with regional and natural resources
Academic achievement surpassed that of students in English-only schools
Linguistic and Cultural Self-Determination
Fate of languages after first contact with Europeans
Language issues are people issues and cannot be divorced from historical antecedents
Many Native people still want their children to acquire the heritage language
Schools used to reverse language loss?
Language and Indigenous Community Empowerment
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