Prologue- History of Oceanography.docx

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Marine science
MNS 307
Dong- Ha Min

1 Prologue: The History of Oceanography Geological Oceanography- the study of Earth at the sea’s edge and below its surface, and the history of the processes that form the ocean basins. Physical Oceanography- investigates the causes and the characteristics of water movements such as waves, currents, and tides and how they affect the marine environment. It also includes studies of the transmission of energy such as sound, light, and heat in seawater. Marine Meteorology (the study of heat transfer, water cycles, and air-sea interactions) Chemical Oceanography- studies the composition and history of the water, its processes, and its interactions. Biological Oceanography- concerns marine organisms and the relationship between these organisms and the environment in the oceans. Oceanography began to develop in the mid-1800s Paleolithic period- humans developed the barbed spear or the harpoon and the gorge (a double-pointed stick interested into bait and attached to a string). Neolithic period- the bone fishhook was developed and later the net. By 5000 BC copper fishhooks were in use. First recorded voyage by sea was led by Pharaoh Snefru about 3200 BC In 2750 BC, Hannu led the earliest documented exploring expedition from Egypt to the southern edge of the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea. The Phoenicians- well known as excellent sailors and navigators Austronesians- people who would first explore and populate the Pacific Ocean Basin “Star Structure”- created by dividing the horizon into 32 segments where known stars rose and set; these directions form a compass and provide a reference for recording information about the direction of winds, currents waves, and the relative positions of islands, shoals, and reefs. * The Polynesians also navigated by making close observations of waves and cloud formations. Pytheas (350-300 BC) - a navigator, geographer, astronomer, and contemporary of Alexander, made one of the earliest recorded voyages from the Mediterranean to England; he made early attempts at determining latitude and longitude. 2 Aristotle- believed that the oceans occupied the deepest parts of Earth’s surface; he also began to catalog marine organisms. Eratosthenes- invented the study of geography as well as a system of latitude and longitude. He was the first person to calculate the tilt of Earth’s axis. His greatest accomplishment was calculating the Earth’s circumference. Pliny the Elder- related the phases of the Moon to the tides and reported on the currents moving through the Strait of Gibraltar. Claudius Ptolemy- produced the first world atlas and established world boundaries. The Middle Ages- intellectual activity declined; however, shipbuilding improved. Vessels became more seaworthy and easier to sail so sailors could make longer voyages. The Vikings (Norse for piracy) – highly accomplished seamen who engaged in extensive exploration, trade, and colonization for nearly 3 centuries. Portolanos- harbor-finding charts that carried a distance scale and noted hazards to navigation but didn’t have longitude or latitude. Venerable Bede- illustrated his account of the tides with data from the British coast; his tide table was entitled “Flod at London Brigge” and documented the times of high water. Bartholomeu Dias- rounded the Cape of Good Home aka the tip of Africa Vasco de Gama- sailed around the tip of Africa and estab. a trade route to India Ferdinand Magellan- circumnavigated the Earth The first hydrographic office dedicated to mapping the oceans was estab. in France in 1720 and was followed in 1795 by the British Admiralty’s appointment of a hydrographer. John Harrison- built
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