BIOL 2200 Chapter Notes - Chapter 547-553: Binomial Nomenclature, Branch Point

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We can decide what category to place a species in by comparing its traits with those of
potential close relatives
Phylogeny = Evolutionary history of a species or group of species
Systematics = Discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their
evolutionary relationship
Taxonomy = The scientific discipline in which organisms are named and classified
Binomial nomenclature = Two-part Latin naming system with each name being unique to
a species
Written as Genus species
Genus = Category in which organisms fall into
Specific epithet = Unique for each species within a genus
Ex: Panthera pardus
Panthera is the genus, and pardus refers to a leopard
Linnaean System:
Species
Genus
Family
Order
Class
Phyla
Kingdom
Domain
Taxon = Named taxonomic unit at any level in the hierarchy
An order of snails does not exhibit the same level of morphological or genetic diversity
as an order of mammals
The placement of species in taxa does not determine evolutionary history
Phylogenetic tree = A branching diagram representing the evolutionary history of a
group of organisms
Taxonomists sometimes place species within a genus they are not most closely related
to
Species sometimes lose a key feature shared by its closest relatives
Organisms can be reclassified if DNA or other new evidence shows so
Dichotomies = Two-way branch points
Branch point = Represents the divergence of two evolutionary lineages from a
common ancestor
Sister taxa = Groups of organisms that share an immediate common ancestor
Rooted = Branch point within the tree represents the most recent common ancestor of all
taxa in the tree
Basal taxon = Lineage that diverges early in the history of a group and lies on a branch
that lies near the common ancestor of the group
Polytomy = Branch point from which more than two descendant groups emerge
Three points about phylogenetic trees:
Show patterns of descent, not phenotypic similarity
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