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Chapter 1-15

PSYC 1004 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-15: Dissociative Identity Disorder, Cognitive Therapy, Reciprocal Liking


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1004
Professor
Mc Pherson
Chapter
1-15

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Chapter 1 Outline-Adjusting To Modern Life
The search for direction
-Self-help books
+The value of self-help books may range from not being helpful at all to being an
excellent source of information-be aware of psychobabble, profit over substance,
vagueness, lack of clarity, and grand promises
-Approach of the textbook
+The textbook focuses on the premises that accurate knowledge from the field of
psychology can be of value, that critical thinking is encouraged, that the text should
be a resource, and that one can be proactive in their life with regards to adjustment
The psychology of adjustment
-What is psychology?
+The science that studies behavior and the physiological and mental processes that
underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this
science to practical problems
-What is adjustment?
+The psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the
demands and challenges of everyday life
The scientific approach to behavior
-The commitment to empiricism
+The philosophy to test ideas through research which are objective
-Advantages of the scientific approach
+This includes clarity, precision, and relative intolerance to error
-Experimental research-looking for causes
+Investigates causation among the independent and dependent variables and
utilizes experimental and control groups
-Correlation research-looking for links
+Investigates relationships between two or more variables and looks at the strength
and direction between the variables-may include naturalistic observation, case
studies, and surveys
The roots of happiness with an empirical analysis
-What is not very important?
+Money, age, gender, parenthood, intelligence, and physical attractiveness
-What is somewhat important?
+Health, social activity, and religion
-What is very important?
+Love and marriage, work, and personality
-Conclusions
+Objective realities are less important than subjective feelings, happiness is relative, and people
adapt to their situations
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Chapter 2 Outline-Theories Of Personality
The nature of personality
-What is personality?
+Refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits
-What are personality traits?
+A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations-also includes the
“Big Five”
Psychodynamic perspectives
-Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
+Includes the id, ego, superego, role of conscious, preconscious, unconscious processes, and
defense mechanisms
-Jung’s analytical psychology
+Includes the collective unconscious and archetypes,
-Adler’s individual psychology
+Includes the concept of compensation to combat feelings of inferiority
-Evaluating psychodynamic perspectives
+Assets include the role of the unconscious with behavior, the relevance of internal conflict, the
importance of early childhood experiences, and the importance of defense mechanisms-the
limitations include poor scientific testability, inadequate evidence, and the topic of sexism
Behavioral perspectives
-Pavlov’s classical conditioning
+Includes unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, conditioned response
-Skinner’s operant conditioning
+Includes positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment
-Bandura’s social cognitive theory
+Includes observational learning, self-efficacy
-Evaluating behavioral perspectives
+Assets include the emphasis on empirical research and objectivity-limitations include that it overly
emphasizes observable behavior and that there is an overdependence on animal research
Humanistic perspectives
-Roger’s person-centered theory
+Includes self-concept, incongruence, and unconditional/conditional love
-Maslow’s theory of self-actualization
+Includes self-actualization and hierarchy of needs
-Evaluating humanistic perspectives
+Assets include the emphasis on subjective views, the philosophy for empowerment, and the emphasis to
what is now referred to as positive psychology-limitations include poor testability, an unrealistic view of
human nature, and inadequate experimental research
Biological perspectives
-Eysenck’s theory
+Personality is largely determined by genetics and personality structure is based on a hierarchy of traits
-Recent research in behavioral genetics
+This includes studies on identical twins, heritability ratio, and nature/nurture influence with personality traits
-The evolutionary approach to personality
+This approach examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the
course of many generations
-Evaluating biological perspectives
+Assets include the recent research in behavioral genetics for evidence that biological factors help shape
personality-limitations include problems with estimates of hereditary influence and a lack of adequate theory
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Chapter 3 Outline-Stress And Its Effects
The nature of stress
-Stress is an everyday event
+Explores how minor events over time have a cumulative effect and may influence mental health
-Stress lies in the eye of the beholder
+Lazarus examines primary and secondary appraisals of stress
-Stress may be embedded in the environment
+Examines the concept of ambient stress which consists of chronic environmental conditions that, although not
urgent, are negatively valued and that place adaptive demands on people. This includes high levels of noise and
crowding
-Stress may be self-imposed
-Stress is influenced by culture
+This includes discrimination and negative stereotypes
Major types of stress
-Frustration
+Frustration occurs in any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted
-Conflict
+Conflict occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression and
includes approach-approach conflict, avoidance-avoidance conflict, and approach-avoidance conflict
-Change
+Life changes are any noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustment
-Pressure
+This involves expectations/demands that one behaves in a certain way. Includes pressure to perform and conform
Responding to stress
-Emotional responses
+Includes both negative and positive emotional responses to stress
-Physiological responses
+Includes the “fight or flight” response and the concept of general adaptation syndrome
-Behavioral responses
+Primarily involves coping which refers to active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress
The potential effects of stress
-Impaired task performance
-Disruption of cognitive functioning
-Burnout
+This involves physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and a lowered sense of self-efficacy that is attributable
to work related stress
-Posttraumatic stress disorder
+PTSD involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event
-Psychological problems and disorders
-Physical illness
+This includes psychosomatic diseases which were defined as genuine physical ailments thought to be caused in
part by stress and other psychological factors
-Positive Effects
+This includes the field of positive psychology, the concept of personal growth, and the topic of stress inoculation
Factors influencing stress tolerance
-Social support
+This refers to various types of aid provided by members of one’s social networks
-Hardiness
-Optimism
+The general tendency to expect good outcomes. This includes explanatory styles
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