BIOL 1F25 Cancer Lecture 13
VEGD promotes and thrombospondin inhibits angiogenesis
Plasminogen (main function is to break down blood clots) is converted into plasmin by plasminogen
• Cell that promotes its own growth by protooncogene to oncogene mutation and ignores inhibitory
signals to cell division through mutations and tumor suppressor genes so we get a cell that grows in an
• 2 types of cell depth, normal senescence and the way to become immortal is through mutations that
have telomerase activity
• Cells also program cell death and cancer cells adopt that through mutations and tumor suppressor
genes and play a role in many characteristics
• Cancer needs to develop with blood supply by stimulating angiogenesis in blood
• This takes place by altering activators and inhibitors of vascular endothelial cells
• Mutations such as tumor suppressor genes affect these cells
• The ras oncogene also affects this
• Changes in cell adhesion and in proteinase that contribute to cancer cells being able to move around
and invade other tissues and gradually spread out and to escape into the blood supply to be transported
to other sites where secondary tumors can form
• 67 developmental changes that relate to cancer changes
Major questions to be addressed:
1. What is cancer?
2. How does cancer develop?
3. What is the genetic basis for cancer?
4. What is meant by the term ‘predisposition to cancer’?
5. Can cancer be prevented?
How do we determine whether or not any characteristic has a genetic basis?
First Indication: • High change of occurrence of the characteristic in a family when compared to the whole population (It
has to be compared to the population as a whole) Social environment is a factor, we don’t just learn
English from family
• The ability to speak a specific language is not inherited (Example)
• Does this prove that the characteristic has a genetic basis?
• Example of a pedigree for early onset breast cancer: Slideshow
• Example the sample: Other pedigrees for early onset breast cancer
Does this prove that early onset breast cancer has a genetic basis?
• Look for a correlation between the trait that you are interested in with known but unrelated, well
defined genetic characteristics
• 23 extended families with 146 cases of breast cancer and 329 relatives without cancer
• Covered 40 US states, Puerto Rico, Canada,