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Lecture 24

BIOL 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 24: Cytochrome C Oxidase, Western Gorilla, Notochord

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Fiona Hunter

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Taxonomy and Systemacs
Etymology of Key Terms
Apo - Away from; formed from
Bi- Two
Clade Group of taxa
-gen That which produces
Mono- One; single; alone
Morph- From
Nomenclature Name; the act of naming
Para- Beside; next to
Phylo- Tribe; race; phylum
Plesi- Close; near
Poly- Many
Sym/syn- With; together
Plesiomorphic Ancestral/primive traits
Symplesopmorphic Shared ancestral/primive traits
Apomorphic Derived traits
Synapomorphic Shared derived traits
Autapomorphic Unique derived traits
Learning outcomes
State the three domains of life
Describe what homologous traits are
Understand what a phylogeny represents
Describe the di.erence between shared primive and shared derived traits
Di.erenate among monophylec, paraphylec, and polyphylec groups
Explain why a classi0caon of system containing class replia and class aves is not valid
Idenfy cladogenic and/or anagenec events oh a phylogenec tree
Explain why shared, derived characters indicate close evoluonary relaonship
Understand how a cladogram is constricted
Explain how a phylogenec tree can indicate the ming of species diversi0caon

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De0ne what is meant by parsimony and know how the principle of parsimony is used in
phylogenec reconstrucon
Be able to use proper binomial nomenclature
Taxonomy and Systemacs
oScience of describing, naming, and classifying living and exnct organisms and viruses
oStudy of biological diversity and the evoluonary relaonships among organisms, both
exnct and modern
Taxonomic groups are now based on hypotheses regarding evoluonary relaonships derived
from systemacs
Phylogenec Trees
Phylogeny - evoluonary history of a species or group of species
To propose a phylogeny, biologists use the tools of systemacs
Trees are usually based on morphological or genec data
Diagram that describes phylogeny
A hypothesis of evoluonary relaonships among various species
Based on available informaon
New species can be formed by
oAnagenesis - single species evolves into a di.erent species
oCladogenesis - a species diverges into 2 or more species
Monophylec group or clade
oGroup of species, taxon, consisng of the most recent common ancestor and all of its
Smaller and more recent clades are nested within larger clades that have older common
For larger taxa, common ancestor existed a long me ago (kingdom)
For smaller taxa, common ancestor more recent (family or genus)
Paraphylec group

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oContains a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants
oOver me, taxonomic groups will be reorganized so only monophylec groups are
oReples were a paraphylec group because birds were excluded
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