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Lecture 24

BIOL 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 24: Cytochrome C Oxidase, Western Gorilla, Notochord


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1F90
Professor
Fiona Hunter
Lecture
24

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Taxonomy and Systemacs
Etymology of Key Terms
Apo - Away from; formed from
Bi- Two
Clade Group of taxa
-gen That which produces
Mono- One; single; alone
Morph- From
Nomenclature Name; the act of naming
Para- Beside; next to
Phylo- Tribe; race; phylum
Plesi- Close; near
Poly- Many
Sym/syn- With; together
Terms
Plesiomorphic Ancestral/primive traits
Symplesopmorphic Shared ancestral/primive traits
Apomorphic Derived traits
Synapomorphic Shared derived traits
Autapomorphic Unique derived traits
Learning outcomes
State the three domains of life
Describe what homologous traits are
Understand what a phylogeny represents
Describe the di.erence between shared primive and shared derived traits
oSymplesiomorphic
oSynapomorphic
Di.erenate among monophylec, paraphylec, and polyphylec groups
Explain why a classi0caon of system containing class replia and class aves is not valid
Idenfy cladogenic and/or anagenec events oh a phylogenec tree
Explain why shared, derived characters indicate close evoluonary relaonship
oSynapomorphic
Understand how a cladogram is constricted
Explain how a phylogenec tree can indicate the ming of species diversi0caon

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De0ne what is meant by parsimony and know how the principle of parsimony is used in
phylogenec reconstrucon
Be able to use proper binomial nomenclature
Taxonomy and Systemacs
Taxonomy
oScience of describing, naming, and classifying living and exnct organisms and viruses
Systemacs
oStudy of biological diversity and the evoluonary relaonships among organisms, both
exnct and modern
Taxonomic groups are now based on hypotheses regarding evoluonary relaonships derived
from systemacs
Phylogenec Trees
Phylogeny - evoluonary history of a species or group of species
To propose a phylogeny, biologists use the tools of systemacs
Trees are usually based on morphological or genec data
Diagram that describes phylogeny
A hypothesis of evoluonary relaonships among various species
Based on available informaon
New species can be formed by
oAnagenesis - single species evolves into a di.erent species
oCladogenesis - a species diverges into 2 or more species
Monophylec group or clade
oGroup of species, taxon, consisng of the most recent common ancestor and all of its
descendants
Smaller and more recent clades are nested within larger clades that have older common
ancestors
For larger taxa, common ancestor existed a long me ago (kingdom)
For smaller taxa, common ancestor more recent (family or genus)
Paraphylec group

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oContains a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants
o
oOver me, taxonomic groups will be reorganized so only monophylec groups are
recognized
oReples were a paraphylec group because birds were excluded
o
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