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Lecture 20

BIOL 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: Primary Nutritional Groups, Hyperthermophile, Photoheterotroph


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1F90
Professor
Fiona Hunter
Lecture
20

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BiodiversityTheBacteriaandArchaea
Oneofthemostprominentfeaturesofthebacteriaandarchaeaistheirdiversity
DomainArchaea
DomainBacteria(akaEubacteria)
Bothprokaryotic–lacknucleus
DomainArchaea
Often(butnotalways)extremophiles
5phylacanoccupyextremehabitatswith
highsaltcontent
halophile
highacidity
highmethanelevels
hightemperatures
ex.Methanopyrusgrowsindeepseathermalventsat98degreescelsius
hyperthermophile
DomainBacteria
50orsobacterialphyla
structuralandmetabolicfeaturesofhalfremainunknown
identifiedandsequencedfromasample,butunabletobecultured
becausewedon’tknowwhattheyneed 
Someareextremophilesbutmanymorebacteriafoundinmoderateconditions
manyformsymbiotic(bothgoodandbad)relationshipswitheukaryotes
Cyanobacteria
photosyntheticbacteriaabundantinfreshwaters,oceansandwetlandsandon
surfacesofaridsoils
namedforbluegreenorcyancolour
duetophycobilin→aidschlorophyll
theonlyprokaryotesgenerateoxygenasaproductofphotosynthesis
gaverisetoplastids/chloroplastsofeukaryoticalgaeandplants
canbenegative→ex.bacterialbloom
Cyanobacteriadisplaythegreateststructuraldiversityfoundamongbacterial
phyla,eg.,singlecells(unicells),colonies,filaments
ImportantConcepts
bacteriaandarchaeaevolvedfromacommonancestor
eukaryoticnucleusandcytoplasmlikelyaroseinanancientarchaealorganism
mitochondriaandplastids/chloroplastsoriginatedfromproteobacteriaand
cyanobacteriabyendosymbiosis
Structure
bacteriaandarchaeasharesmallsize,rapidgrowth,andsimplecellularstructure
bacteriaandarchaeaare1–5µmindiameter
mostplantandanimalcellsarebetween10and100µmindiameter
smallcellsizelimitstheamountofmaterialsthatcanbestoredwithincellsbutallows
fastercelldivision
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