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BIOL 2P92 (117)

Mood Disorders

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Ingrid Makus

CHRONIC MOOD DISORDERS: Cyclothymic disorder: the person has frequent periods of depressed mood and hypomania, which may be mixed with, may alternate with, or may be separated by periods of normal mood lasting as long as two months. during depression, they feel inadequate; during hypomania, their self-esteem is inflated. They withdraw from people, then seek them out in an uninhibited fashion. They sleep too much and then too little. The person with dysthymic disorder is chronically depressed – more than half the time for at least two years. insomnia or sleeping too much; feelings of inadequacy; ineffectiveness, and lack of energy; pessimism; an inability to concentrate and to think clearly; and a desire to avoid the company of others. Women are 2-3 times more likely than men. Many people with it have episodes of major depression, as well, a condition known as double depression. PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF MOOD DISORDERS: PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF DEPRESSION: Freud; during the oral period, a child’s needs may be insufficiently or oversufficiently gratified, causing the person to become fixated in this stage. With this arrest in psychosexual maturation, the person may develop a tendency to be excessively dependent on other people for the maintenance of self-esteem. Freud hypothesized that after the loss of a loved one, the mourner first interjects, or incorporates, the lost person’ he identifies with the lost one, perhaps in a fruitless attempt to undo the loss. Because we unconsciously harbour negative feelings toward those we love, the mourner then becomes the object of his own hate and anger. The period of introjections is followed by a period of mourning work, separates himself from the person who has died or has died or disappointed him and loosens the bonds imposed by introjections. But the mourning work can go astray and develop into an ongoing process of self-abuse, self-blame and depression in overly dependent individuals. COGNITIVE THEORIES OF DEPRESSION: Beck’s Theory of Depression: depressed individuals feel as they do because their thinking is biased toward negative interpretations. The negative schemata acquired by depressed persons are activated whenever they encounter new situations that resemble in some way, perhaps only remotely, the conditions in which the schemata were learned. An ineptness schema can make depressed individuals expect to tail most of the time, a self-blame schema burdens them with responsibility for all misfortunes and a negative self-evaluation schema constantly reminds them of their worthlessness. Negative schemata, together with cognitive biases or distortions, maintain what Beck called the negative triad: negative views of the self, the world, and the future. The following describes the principal cognitive biases:  arbitrary inference: a conclusion drawn in the absence of sufficient evidence or of any evidence at all.  Selective abstraction: a conclusion drawn on the basis of only one of man elements in a situation.  Overgeneralization: an overall sweeping conclusion drawn on the basis of a single, perhaps trivial, event.  Magnification and minimization: exaggerations in evaluating performance. IN Beck’s theory, our emotional reactions are a function of how we construe our world. The interpretations of depressed individuals do not mesh well with the way most people view the world, and they become victims of their own illogical self-judgements. Depressed people endorse more negative words and fewer positive as self-descriptive. Second, they have a cognitive bias; they gave greater recall of adjectives with depressive content, especially if the adjectives were rated as self-descriptive. depressed people take longer to colour-name words that varied in their content; neutral, depression- oriented words, suggesting that these themes were more cognitively accessible for them. A deployment of attention task to show that dysphoric and clinically depressed individuals do not seem to selectively attend to negative or positive material but that non-depressed individuals have a protective bias that involves diverting their attention away from negative st
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