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Lecture 06 Head

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Dirk De Clercq

Outline of Lecture 06 Head and Neck Development I. Initial events A) Sources of tissue - neural crest cells  bones of face/skull, cartilage, connective tissue - mesoderm  occipital bone, laryngeal cartilage - somitomeres  voluntary muscles of head and neck B) Principles of development - 7 somitomeres form in head region from paraxial mesoderm - Somitomeres induce segmental development of brain (e.g. rhombomeres) - NCC’s migrate to arches, carrying HOX code with them (prevents segment mixing) II. Pharyngeal arches (aka branchial arches) - Arch is made of mesoderm, lined by ectoderm (outside) and endoderm (inside) - Clefts (outside) and pouches (inside) separate the arches Arc Artery Nerv Skeleton Muscles Pouch Cleft h e Maxillary V Maxilla, mm. of 1 mandible mastication 1 Tympani Ext. aud. Hyoid, VII Stapes, facial mm., c cavity, meatus, stapedial styloid, post. digastric, eustachia eardrum 2 part of stylohyoid, n tube hyoid stapedius 2 Palatine tonsil Carotid IX Part of Stylopharyngeu 3 hyoid s 3 Thymus, inf. Cervical Right X Cricothyroid, sinus 4 subclavian (sup. lev. palatine, parathy. , aortic laryn. pharynx 4 Sup. (degenerat arch ) Laryngea constrictors parathy. es) l 5 - - cartilages 5 Ultimobr Pulmonar X (4,6) Intrinsic larynx anchial 6 y (recu mm. body r.lary n.) III. Tongue - Tongue is occipital mesodermal muscle (inn. by XII) covered with endodermal mucosa - Anterior tongue innervation from V, VIII; posterior tongue from IX, X - Anterior/posterior separation at terminal sulcus (contains foramen cecum) - Frenulum is remainder of tissue connecting tongue to flo
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