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BIOL 2P95 (35)

Larnyx and Speech

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Brock University
Dirk De Clercq

Larnyx and Speech I. Functions a. Protection of respiratory tract (s.t. food/saliva/etc don’t get into respiratory tract) b. Assistance controlling intra-thoacic pressure (can close off airway => increased thoracic pressure (for straining or coughing) c. Production of sound (via vocal folds II. Structure a. Cartilaginous Framework i. Thyroid, cricoid, & arytenoid cartilage, epiglottis, & hyoid bone ii. Arytenoid cartilage—has vocal process (where vocal fold attaches) & muscle process b. Membranes & Ligaments i. membrane==general term for sheet of tissue ii. ligament==often just thickening of membranes iii. Thyrohyoid membrane—between hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage iv. Quadrangular membrane—between thyroid cartilage and vocal folds * False vocal fold—inferior edge of quadrangular membrane v. Cricothyroid membrane = cricovocal mem = conus elasticus c. Musculature i. Extrinsic Muscles 1. Suprahyoids (digastric, myohyoid, stylohyoid, geniohyoid); raise the larynx 2. Infrahyoids (sternothyroid, omohyoid, sternohyoid, thyrohyoid); lower the larynx 3. Fxn: raise/lower larynx, stabilize hyoid (so tongue can move), used in swallowing ii. Intrinsic Muscles 1. Adductors a. Transverse & oblique arytenoids—adduct arytenoids cartilage b. Lateral Cricoarytenoids—spin & slide arytenoids => adduction of vocal folds 2. Abductors a. Posterior cricoarytenoids—move arytenoids apart => vocal fold abduction 3. Adjustors a. Cricothyroid muscle—pulls/tips thyroid cartilage down and slides it forward (inn. by external laryngeal n) b. Thyroarytenoid & vocalis muscle—adduct folds, slacken folds, and change their shape (bring together parts of folds) i. Vocalis is medial-most portion of thyroarytnoid m. ii. Fibers of both mm. run ~ same direction d. Of note: folds become stiffer from epithelium → vocalis muscle & near connections of vocal fold to surrounding cartilage (arytenoids & thyroid cartilage); VOCAL FOLD IS COMPLEX, MULTILAYERED VIBRATOR III. Speech a. Production of sound
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