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Child and Youth Studies
John Mc Namara

Child and Youth Studies CHYS 1F90 Dr. J. McNamara Fall 2010 Foundations of Development Kail & Barnfield (2009) 1F90 So Far… • Revised Course Outline (on Sakai) • Seminars begin next week • Reading package • Take home mid-term exam posted Friday Oct 22 and due Friday Oct 29 • First assignment due Monday of Nov 22 • • Taking notes • Etc.? Lecture Overview  Roles of theories  Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology  How theories of development are applied What is a Theory? A set of concepts and propositions that describe, organize, and explain a set of observations  What makes a theory good? – must be the least complex explanation – must be able to be tested – must predict future behaviour Fundamental Issues in Developmental Theories  Nature / Nurture  An interaction Overview  Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology – Biological theories of development – Psychodynamic theories – Learning-based theories – Cognitive-Developmental theory – Contextual theories Psychoanalytic Theories Freud’s Psychosexual Theory • Conflict of individual’s instinct and societal norms for behaviour – Three components of personality  Id  Ego  Superego Inner Conflict Between Id – Ego - Superego Psychoanalytic Theories Psychoanalytic Theories  Freud’s stages of psychosexual development  Stages propose shifts in focus on parts of body • Oral (birth – 1 year) • Anal (1 – 3 years) • Phallic (3 – 6 years) • Latency (6 -11 years) • Genital (12 onward) EErikson’s Psychosocial Development  A neo-Freudian  Viewed children as more active in development than Freud  Far less emphasis on sexual urges  More emphasis on social and cultural influences on development  A series of developmental steps  Remains more popular than Freud’s theory Psychoanalytical Theories Contributions • idea of unconscious motivation • focus on later consequences of early experiences Criticisms • no real evidence of early conflicts affecting adult personality Learning Theories Learning Theories John Watson’s Behaviourism  Only overt behaviours should be measured and analyzed  Strong emphasis on environmental influences – recall Locke’s tabula rasa  Development is continuous and based on learning Little Albert AApplications of Watson’s Behaviourism  “Anyone can be anything”
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