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Lecture 9

CHYS 2P10 lecture 9.docx

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Child and Youth Studies
Anthony Volk

CHYS 2P10 December 9 2013: 118 MC questions (Definitions and application are important) EXAM PREP: Notes on second half of the material: Lecture 9: (Attachment) - Attachment: close emotional links - Ex: mother with her child - John Bowlby: attachment theory (feelings) goal oriented - Theory: social relationships early on in life are crucial (mother and infant being together most of the time) this effects a child’s development major and can affect them even more later on in their lives - This links to evolution and the child surviving longer - Bowlby and Rene Splitz: looked at death rates of infants in orphanages (with no parents) = hospitalism - This is due to the lack of social interaction and mother and daughter love/bond - Harry Harlow: worked with monkeys and he challenged infant/mother attachment theory - He separated infant monkeys from their mothers at birth and then created 2 new mothers: - 1. Wire mother with a food dispenser - 2. Wire mother with a cloth covering - He then placed the monkey in a cage with both of these two new mothers and then observed e infant - The infant always went to the cloth covered mother, except occasionally with that mother still there it would get food from the other mother - This was unexpected but did prove that the attachment for mother/infant is crucial - Bonding: mother falling in love with her baby (mother bonds with baby and baby forms attachment with the mother) - Bowlby came up with 4 stages of attachment to prove his theory: - 1. Pre-attachment: 0-6 weeks old - Relationship with parent and infant - 2. Attachment in the making 6-8 months old - Response to others (introduce others) - 3. Clear cut 8-18 months - Trust and distress (leave alone with others ex: babysitter) - 4. Reciprocal relationship 18-24 months - Understanding the needs of the parents/caretakers (leaving them alone) - Measuring attachment: - Strange situation test: 8 different episodes/events by Mary Ainsworth - 1. Leave baby to play - 2. Parent sits with baby - 3. Stranger enters and talks to parent (fear) - 4.parent leaves stranger lets baby play (separation distress) - 5. Parent returns stranger leaves (reactions) - 6. Parent leaves (separation distress) - 7. Stranger enters and comforts if needs (fear) - 8. Parent returns offers comfort if needs (reactions) - Attachment was observed throughout the whole process and the reactions of the child - Secure children = upset when parents
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