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CHYS 1F90 Lecture Notes - Basil Bernstein, Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
Lauren Mc Namara

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Child and Youth Studies
Dr. J. McNamara
Fall/Winter 2011
Lecture Outline
Basic learning processes
Metacognition (Self regulated learning)
What is Intelligence
Thought to be a stable trait
A capacity
Many theories of what intelligence is…
Are sports intelligence? Is music intelligence?
How is Intelligence Measured?
Most current test
The Wechsler Scales
WAIS – III For adults. eg. how many weeks are there in a year? Who proposed the
theory of relativity? Who
painted the Sistine
Chapel? What is
the world’s
WISC – IV For infants
Tests include both verbal
and nonverbal
How is Intelligence
Range of Intelligence

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Intelligence is a stable trait?
Average IQ is always 100. Most people are between 85-115.
How stable are IQ scores across childhood?
Scores at age 8 correlate with scores at age 18 (.70)
many children show fluctuations
Increase or decrease; not random
Environment important
What do IQ Scores Predict?
Scholastic achievement
.50 correlation with future grades
Vocational outcome
Education IQ scores from when a child is in grades 1,2,3 can predict their level of
education in the future as well as their future job.
Factors that Influence IQ
Evidence for Heredity
Twin Studies
Identical twins’ IQ correlated more than fraternal IQ might be genetic
Adoption Studies
Adopted children’s IQs resemble biological parents more than adopted
Intelligence is a stable trait?
IQ and self-regulated learning: a socio-cultural cameo!
Reminder: a socio-cultural perspective prioritizes importance of culture, social relations, social
structure, social inequality
Culturally specific
E.g. Kpelle in Liberia: Western researchers visited Liberia and wanted to do IQ testing.
Gave people food, tools, clothing, and containers, and asked them to organize them
logically. They organized things in order of function (eg. orange with knife).
Class-based culture
Basil Bernstein: Worked in England and teaching boys (lower class, considered less
intelligent), he found they weren’t less intelligent, but their language was much different. He
found that middle class boys had a broader, more elaborated speech. He argued that in
school tests were based on middle class speech, which led to the lower class
Hart and Risley: Met with a child every month (from the 7 month period), until the child was
four. They would tape the conversations with parents.
45 million: The higher class kids had 45 million words by age four.
26 million: Middle class kids.
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