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Lecture

CHYS 1F90 Lecture Notes - Tabula Rasa, Psychosexual Development, Little Albert Experiment


Department
Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
CHYS 1F90
Professor
Lauren Mc Namara

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Child and Youth Studies
CHYS 1F90
Dr. J. McNamara
Fall 2011
Foundations of Development
Kail & Barnfield (2009)
Bronfenbrenner (1994)
Lecture Overview
Roles of theories
Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology
How theories of development are applied
What is a Theory?
A set of concepts and propositions that describe, organize, and explain a set of observations
What makes a theory good?
must be the least complex explanation
must be able to be tested Eg. Swans are all white. What if there are black swans?
must predict future behavior
Fundamental Issues in Developmental Theories
Nature / Nurture Some say children are a result of their biology. Some say it’s a result of
upbringing.
An interaction of biology and environment.
Children are the result or nature and nurture.
Overview
Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology
Biological theories of development
Psychodynamic theories
Learning-based theories
Cognitive-Developmental theory
Contextual theories
Psychoanalytic Theories
Freud’s Psychosexual Theory
·Conflict of individual’s instinct and societal norms for behaviour
Three components of personality
Id part of you that wants what it wants - instinctual
Ego sense of how do I balance things?
Superego part a person that understands right or wrong - holds us in check
Some people say the “Joker” is the grown up version of pure ID.
Inner Conflict
Between Id – Ego - Superego
Psychoanalytic Theories
Freud’s stages of psychosexual development
Stages propose shifts in focus on parts of body
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Oral (birth – 1 year) thumb sucking
Anal (1 – 3 years) development of ego, some control over themselves
Phallic (3 – 6 years)
Latency (6 -11 years) sports, school, kids continue to develop an ego
Genital (12 onward) puberty, hormone development
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
A neo-Freudian
Viewed children as more active in development than Freud
Far less emphasis on sexual urges
More emphasis on social and cultural influences on development
A series of developmental steps
Remains more popular than Freud’s theory
Psychoanalytical Theories
Contributions
·idea of unconscious motivation often uses hypnosis
·focus on later consequences of early experiences
Criticisms
·no real evidence of early conflicts affecting adult personality
Learning Theories
John Watson’s Behaviorism
Only overt behaviors should be measured and analyzed
Strong emphasis on environmental influences
recall Locke’s tabula rasa “blank slate” things in environment shape behavior directly
Development is continuous and based on learning
Little Albert
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