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Lecture 11

History Lecture 11.docx

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David Schimmelpenninck

March 28 The Hangover: Economic Shifts, Terrorism and the Skeletons in the Closet Lecture 11 Collapse of the Soviet Union Communism in 1991 • Christmas day 1991 = the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union  By 1991 most soviet citizens realized communism would not make their lives any better, the economy was in free fall and would on get worse after communism  The rise of nationalism – new ideology to replace communism o Soviet union was large empire Gorbachev –permitted greater criticism of the government  This ultimately led to the peoples voices to be heard in the Soviet Union Drops membership in the communist party in the 1990 and this affected elections in Russia in July of 1990 and Yelsin wins the election and becomes democratic: the republic of Russia does not want to be communist August 1991 on Vacation: soviet communists stage a Coup D’états with the head of the KGB where they put Gubachev on house arrest – this is Yelsins finest hour Yelsin goes out into the street, stands on a tank and defies the hardliners(protestors) Within 48 hours confidence was lost the protest was called off The coup fails Yelsin releases Gubachev from house arrest Ultimately this attempt results in the common wealth of the soviet states and all states from 1991 claimed their independent March 28 Lecture: 1) Disintegration of Yugoslavia (1991-95;1998-99) 2) Europe: From Community to Unity a. NATO and EU Expansion into Eastern Europe 3) Resurgence of the Political Right andAnti-Immigrant Sentiment in the West 4) 9/11 and the “War on Terror” Invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq (2001,2003) Disintegration of Yugoslavia (De-communization), 1991 • Next to Baltics and Italy – north of Greece • Made up of 6 republics • Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Macedonia (Do not need to memorize) • The borders did not mix with ethnic boundaries this meant lots of ethnic mixing – i.e. Serbia-many Serbs with aAlbania minority, • Yugoslavia’s communist regime was revolted against in 1990 – multi party election in 1990 in Yugoslavia 1. 2. Economic recession in 1990 • Whatever was holding Yugoslavia together had eroded by 1990 • TTTO: his image of a successful leader helped the community- 1990 Brotherhood and Unity held Yugoslavia together • JNA- YugoslavArmy • Chronology of the fighting; fighting was minimal in Slovia. In Croatia (with the Serb majority) • Bosnia: o Ethnic Cleansing: push populations out of Bosnia o Bosnia is an independent state today but with many ethnic divisions • Kosovo: o Lies at heart of Serbian identity but 95%Albania identity o Albania declares its independence in 1990 • War Crime reports – the ICTY for Yugoslavia – based in the Netherlands – report all war crimes and have them be dealt with – Trial (see document) Europe: From Community to Unity • from the European community to the European union • In 1992: Critical Maastricht Treaty, 1992 – known today as the European union - not this a name change from simply an economic free trade zone to much more than that – community to a union o Also, the promise to put into affect a single European currency – The Euro – Britain and Denmark opted out – use their own currency o 1999 was brought into currency – first electronic and then in 2002 in hand currency • The Union added 3 new countries – Switzerland, ______ and o Easily observed these three wealthy states • Controversial: Let in former communist states or not : o in the 1990s former communist states were going through a transition to a capitalist state o there was no Marshall Plan and therefore poor economies o used Economic Shock Therapy – trying to reform their economies – go trhough pain to feel benefits  gov’t cuts  prioritizing companies  try to make economy as attractive as possible to foreigners • this was all a theory  Result: lots of unemployment BUT by mid 90s had some economy recovery • Czech, Slovia, Hu
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