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Lecture

HLSC 1F90 Lecture Notes - Caffeine, Spina Bifida, Breast Pain


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HLSC 1F90
Professor
Madeline Law

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Child Birth/ Pregnancy
**CLICKER QUESTION Infectious disease account for what percentage of the worldwide research? 33%
Kosh’s postulates and research work identified that: spontaneous generation does not happen
Objectives
To identify trends in birth rates and reasons
To identify and discuss current topics related to
A) Contraception
B) Choice of birthing practitioner and location
C) Issues of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Rate of Fertility in Developed Nations increases and goes higher and higher and USA has the highest
Average of women who gave birth since 1988
25-29 year olds
Why people don’t have babies as much, and why are more individuals having babies in their 30’s?
Potential reasons
Baby boom
Women’s liberation
Staying in schooling longer
Participation in the labour force
High costs of child and education
Health Promotion around teen pregnancy
Individual’s enjoying travel and a different lifestyle
Advances in contraception!

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IS this change in birth rates good or bad? (Why might be some of the outcomes of fewer young
people?)
Good or bad?
Bad…
Fewer young people working = less tax paid
Fewer young people to care for out larger elderly population
Fewer people to create innovations to fuel economic development
Good….
Fewer people to compete for jobs
Standard of living
Food supply
Pollution
Conception and contraception
What is the most effective contraception technique (other than abstinence)? INPLANON
All contraception’s techniques provide the same level of STI prevention? FALSE
So are we using contraception as we should?
Perfect effectiveness rate
The percentage rate of women who will become pregnant with a consistent and correct use
Example 2/100 women will become pregnant with condom use
Typical use rate
The percentage of women who will become pregnant with an inconsistent, incorrect use of the
contraception
Example 85/100 will become pregnant with condom use
Emergency contraception
What are the pros and cons of the plan B?
Take a few minutes to discuss try to come with 2 pros and 2 cons
Take within 72 hours
Available in Canadian pharmacies without a prescription
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Pros- no babies, an alternative way if forgotten (LOOK AT TEXTBOOK)
Cons, it’s expensive, it doesn’t prevent STI’s (LOOK AT TEXTBOOK)
Interesting finds at Brock…..
N=271
Use of birth control also time you had virginal intercourse = 142 (103 NA)
Last vaginal intercourse Use of a male condom Yes = 106 no = 33 (total 139)
Last vaginal intercourse use of withdrawal method Yes=
In BC researcher reported that:
7% of grade nine respondents with sexual activity and 11% grade 11 responded to sexual activity
Teen pregnancy rates
44.9 Per 1000 in 1990 to 28.2 in 2010
Decade of declining teen pregnancy rates have stabilized
However, for some regions of Canada, teen pregnancy rates are trending upwards
Risk factors Oman et al 2013
Family communication school connectedness were significantly associated with reduced risk for
initiation of sexual intercourses
Assets (e.g. educational aspirations for the future, responsible choices) were significantly
associated with increased use of birth control at last sex
10 assets (e.g. family communication, school connectedness) were significantly associated with
reduced risk for pregnancy
Positive neighbourhood conditions were significantly associated with increased birth control see
but not with ISI or pregnancy
FIGURE 8.4
Abortion Dr. Henry Mergenthaler
Abortion is legal in Canada
Payment for abortions is debated covered by provincial health insurance if performed in hospitals
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