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Lecture 9

LING 2P72 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Paralanguage, Cooperative Principle, Pragmatics

Course Code
Tom Farrell

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Lecture: Ethnicity, Discourse
-Chinese Singaporeans often signal ethnic background with linguistic tags such as
the expressive “la”
Ethnicity and Social networks
-ethnicity is socially constructed, not biologically determined
-plays major roll in how individuals experience and structure their social worlds
Ethnic language varieties called ethnolects
-variety of language associated with particular ethnic group
-AAVE di$erent from American English
-omission of the verb “be” (he a teacher)
-distinct meanings of “be” (she be at school)
-multiple negation and English may lower socioeconomic groups (regardless
of color)
-consonant cluster simpli'cation = las_time
Social Network Relations
-as members of working class, patterns of relationships suggest they use vernacular
-delete the th in mother, brother
-pronounce man as /mawn/, map as /mawp/
-contrast to community, neighborhood, who speak broadly
-Sandy lives on edge of area – works in civil service, from Southern Ireland, he sees
Tom sometimes in pub -not part of close knit male network of area/uses fewer
vernacular features
Density: whether members of person’s network are in touch with each other
-do your friends know each other independently of you? If yes, you have a
DENSE network
Plexity: measures of di$erent transactions show people are involved with di$erent
-uniplex relationship is with one person in only one area – play sport only
once a week
-multiplex involves interactions with others along several dimensions – play
tennis with
workmate -peoples speech re3ects the network they belong to
-communities of practice and construction of social identity
-develop around activities which group members engage in together and shared
objectives and attitudes: family, sports team, workgroup
-use language to construct di$erent identities in di$erent social interactions
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