1 Revolution of Thinking st
- The Pre-Socratics (non-mythological thinking, appeal to the “natural”) Arche = 1
st (origin of everything)
- 1 Philosopher = Thales (580 B.C.E.), stated arche was water
2 Revolution of Thinking
- Socrates (died 399 B.C.E.) charged with corrupting the youth and worshiping
- Plato (Socrates student), Aristotle (Plato’s student)
After Them: Neo-Platism, Post-Aristotleanism, reinvention of the wheel
3 Revolution of Thinking
- Descartes, Father of Modern thilosophy
- Modern = November 10 , 1617
4 Revolution of Thinking
- SK – father of contemporary philosophy
- Contemporary = May 19 , 1838 @ 10:30am
- Nietzsche (1844-1900) “God is dead” – demonstration of contemporary new
[Feuerbach: “God is for the birds”]
- Religion = self alienating (negative)
- Athiest = no belief
- Agnostic = impartial
- Polytheism (many gods)
- Monotheism (one god)
- Monoism (everything can be explained with one thing, arche)
5 Philosophical Problems with God
1) Is God a transcendent or immanent being, or both?
2) Does God have a “special” historical relationship with us?
3) Is “God” a personal God who loves us?
4) What are God’s essential properties?
5) How can you prove that God exists – or doesn’t?
- Nature is neither good nor bad (ex. A comet struck the earth and wiped out the
dinosaurs, neither a good thing or a bad thing it just happens; shit happens) - Some say everything that happens is accidental, there is no plan because there is
no God, nothing is divine
- All perish randomly
- The Star of Bethlehem: “Yet oh God, there were so many stars you could have
3 features of the star:
1) Perished innocent, undeserving
2) Completely destroyed, no survivors
3) Their sun was a sign, seemingly insignificant in the divine scheme of things; used
as a means to further our human ends
“The problem of prime facie (at first glance) is gratuitous (evil)”
1) There is evil in the world
2) God is all good, all powerful, and all knowing (implies there should be no pain,
no torment, no evil)
John Hick offers a “Christian” solution to the problem of evil
- If you don’t believe in a loving and caring God, there is no problem of evil at all
If God were really good wouldn’t he stop the suffering? If God were really all-powerful
couldn’t he stop the suffering? If God were really all knowing wouldn’t he know about
the suffering and want to stop it?
Manichaeism: releasing spirit from matter through self-denial
“Everything that exists in virtue of the fact that everything was created by god mus