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Lecture 8

PSYC 2P25 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder, Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Frequency-Dependent Selection

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Michael Ashton

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Evolutionary Function of Personality (continued)
Evolutionary Interpretations of HEXACO Personality Factors
Can consider possible adaptive trade-offs of basic personality factors (In each case, frequency-
dependent selection and fluctuating optimums are likely to be involved.)
Factor content suggests adaptive trade-offs involving “altruism” and “endeavour”.
H, A, E as altruism-related dimensions
X, C, O as endeavour-related dimensions
H and reciprocal altruism
Honesty-Humility: cooperate despite opportunity to exploit.
Benefits: gains from cooperation
Costs: missed gains from exploiting others
A and reciprocal altruism
Agreeableness: cooperate despite (perhaps) being exploited.
Benefits: gains from cooperation
Costs: losses from being exploited by others
E and kin altruism
Emotionality as kin investment:
Direct link sentimentality (feelings of empathy, attachment promote kin altruism).
Indirect link fearfulness/dependence (protection of self & kin).
Benefits: better survival chances for self and kin
Costs: missed gains from risky opportunities
(Sex difference [W > M] matches parental investment difference.)
X as social endeavour
Extraversion as engagement in social endeavour (leading, entertaining, socializing).
Benefits: social gains (mates, friends, allies)
Costs: time, energy, social risks
C as task-related endeavour
Conscientiousness as engagement in task related endeavour (working, planning, organizing)
Benefits: material gains (incl. food), safety
Costs: time, energy
O as idea-related endeavour
Openness to Experience as engagement in idea-related endeavour (learning, imagining,
Benefits: material and social gains (from discovery)
Costs: time, energy, risks (social, natural)
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