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Lecture 3

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Brock University
Daniel Glenday

The Quebecois: -conquest is a second form of internal colonialism which is the forcible capture of land and the economic and political domination of its inhabitants -the English conquered New France and created a system of ethnic stratification and turned out to be a major source of political conflict -British recognized that imposing their ways on the former French colony could result in high levels of resistant and conflict -thus, they tried to accommodate farmers and Catholic clergy by reinforcing their rights and privileges -thought this would win the allegiance of the 2 groups -but they undermined the rights and privileges of merchants engaged mainly in fur trade -thus while agriculture, religion, and politics remained in province of France, British took over all large- scale commerce -although by 1950s many Quebecois became part of the “new middle class” the upper reaches of the stratification system remained populated by people of British origin -social separation reinforced economic segregation -social relations b/w the 2 can be seen in book called Two Solitudes th -Quebec in middle of 20 century had undeveloped government services -health, education, and welfare controlled by the Catholic church -government intervention in economic matters was almost unknown -thus, members of Quebec’s new middle class and blue-collar workers campaigned to modernize the provincial political system -known as the Quiet Revolution -modernization of the Quebec state failed to resolve 4 issues: 1. The potential demographic decline of the Quebecois -the Quebecois were giving birth to fewer children than those of other provinces 2. The assimilation of immigrants into English culture -most new immigrants preferred to have their children educated in English-language schools 3. Persistent ethnic stratification -management positions in the private sector remained the preserve of English-origin Canadians 4. The continued use of English as the language of private industry -English remained primary language b/c the largest and technologically most advanced businesses were controlled by English Canadians and Americans -thus many Quebecois felt that the survival and prosperity of their community required active state intervention in non-francophone institutions African Canadians: -a third form of internal colonialism is slavery which is the ownership and control of people -Black slaves were bought and sold in Canada up to at least the 1820s -became illegal in Canada in 1833 and abolished in the US 30 years later -wasn’t as widespread as in the US and Canada also served as the terminus for the underground railway -however, after the American Civil War, the practice of encouraging black settlement in Canada was reversed -government required rejection of most immigration applications by black people -reflected prejudice by Canadian population -relations b/w African Canadians and white Europeans were anything but intimate and based on equality -African Canadians tended to do unskilled labour and were residentially and socially segregated -ex. Community of Africville in Halifax -Canadian policy liberalized in 1960s and racial and ethnic restrictions removed -immigrants now admitted based on potential economic contribution, their close family ties, or their refugee status -thus Canada became a more racially and ethnically diverse society -the social standing of Canada’s black community thus improved significantly -however, they still tend to interact little w/ white Canadians of European descent especially in intimate relations and they still tend to live in different neighbourhoods -prejudice, discrimination, disadvantage, and segregation continue to act as a barrier to assimilation The theory of the split labour market and the case of Asian Canadians: -second theory that focuses on the social-structural barriers to assimilation is the theory of the split labour market proposed by Edna Bonacich -explains why racial identities are reinforced by certain labour market conditions -argues that where low-wage workers of one race and high-wage workers of another race compete for the same jobs, high-wage workers are likely to resent the presence of low-wage competitors and conflict is bound to result (and consequently racist attitudes develop) -ex. Asian immigration to Canada -Chinese, Japanese, and then later Sikhs were allowed into Canada for one reasonto provide scarce services and cheap labour in the booming west -Chinese businesses dotted the west especially in British Columbia -more important were the Asian labourers who worked in lumbering, mining, and railway construction (CPRinvolved blasting tunnels and laying rails along dangerous Rocky Mountains passes) -were paid half the wage of white workers and many died due to exposure, disease, malnutrition and explosions -immigration was viewed as a threat to cherished British values and institutions -thus once CPR was finishe
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