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Lecture 3

SOCI 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: White Privilege, Hegemonic Masculinity, Hidden Curriculum


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI 1F90
Professor
Sara Cumming
Lecture
3

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Education (Chapter)
Education in Canada
—responsible for transmission of knowledge, skills, values, attitudes deemed desirable
-producing citizens in formal (regulated, organized by the state) and informal ways
(learning activities outside formal education) contribute to social reproduction
-earliest forms of education: residential schools (19th century missionaries and religious
orders)
-before: Aboriginals used organic education, no formal teachers, means of ensuring
cultural survival
-Europeans sought to replace Aboriginal knowledge, thought children in need of help,
took them from their families, couldn’t speak language, harsh punishment
-June 2008 Stephen Harper apologized
-industrialization and immigration caused need for education system, essential economic
development, people pay taxes toward education system, age raised 12 to 16 in 1919
-boys directed to vocational training, girls to domestic , they were completely segregated
-used to be a university degree=privileged elite group, significant rise, mastication: mass
increase in post-secondary enrolment
-high school diploma can no longer garner same kind of paid job as before
-women have surpassed men in enrolment
-Canada’s highs school completion rates are good, high post-secondary attainment
-formal and continual training are emphasized in globalized and globalizing societies,
indicator in country’s development
Sociological approaches to Education
Functionalism
-schools function as social systems, serve and reflect values and interests of society in
which they operate
-maintain equilibrium through allocation and socialization
-teach students how to function in larger society, be good citizens, hidden curriculum,
kindergarten is space for kids to learn student role (Harry Gracey)
-clings to idea of meritocracy
Conflict
-serving capitalist aims of profit and compliant workers, trains conformers
-correspondence principle: principle whereby the structures of workplaces are reflected
in the structure of schools
-motivate behaviour through external rewards, student from privileged backgrounds are
more likely to get higher education
-tuition costs have skyrocketed
-Canadian medical schools student come from families with high incomes, patients don't
have access to doctors from other classes, few students receive scholarships
Symbolic Interactionism
-society and social arrangements are fluid, meanings constructed through interaction
and context, they examine meanings attached to school practises
-Howard Becker: how teacher categorizations affect student’s learning, self-fulfilling
prophecy
-Ray Rist: participant observation study, after 8 days teacher arranged kids in 3
categories (fast, average, slow), best received most attention, no formal assessment
-intersections of race, class, gender, low expectations may lead to student
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