Lecture14-Chapter 11 Pterosaurs .doc

17 views6 pages
Lecture14-Chapter 11
Pterosaurs
Flyers
Started relatively late
requires significant modifications:
Skeleton
Muscles
Motor control/brain
Warm- blooded animals
What are three levels of Flight?
Glidind/parachuting
body surface increases to provide resistance to air
Flying
powered
Soaring
take advantage to air movement
When was air space conquered?
Devonian-395 million years ago
Animals and plants moved on land
First spores used air space for distribution
Insects
Why do some dinosaurs fly?
Advantages:
Larger distance in shorter time
Arctic Tern with an annual migration route of 30000 Km
Discovery of new areas, inaccessible over land-colonization by air
formation of new islands
more vegetation animals are able to fly over there
predators can be escaped
Flyers can escape predators
predators can capture their prey
Almost every group of vertebrate has members with the ability to:
Fly
Glide
Soar
Lizards & Geckos
Membranes along the side of body
Draco volans, a flying lizard from southeast Asia
Ribs extend beyond body
Air born for about 15 m
Draco volans
Flying Snake
From Southeat Asia, India, and Sri Lanka
Flattens its body to increase air resistance
Mammals
Bats, flying squirrels & flying lemurs
Fossil record goes back 60 million years
Bats
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Flying mammals
Fossil record of 60 million years
Four greatly elongated fingers
Flying reptiles have one finger
Birds have feathers instead
Wind Designs
Bird
bat
Pterosaur
Pterosaurs
Flying reptile
Appeared at the end ofTriassic
213 Million years ago
Birds
Since late Jurassic
Archaeopteryx lithographica
solnhofen Limestone
recent finds in texas place origin of birds back to time of pterosaurs
What do flyers have in common ?
Wings..
Hollow bones for body weight reduction
Some fused joints to reduce flexibility for controlled movement
Warm-bloodedness for constant high levels of energy
Bones
cut open bone shows hollow spaces, some solidity
If its not buried rapidly it will not fossilize nicely
Poor fossil record of flyers
Hollow and fragile bones
Poor fossilization potential
Lithographic limestones of Solnhofen offers preservation potential
Germany:
Lagerstaetle
Chalks of Kansas
Geological time when we had chalk deposits?
Cretaceous time when we had interior seaway.
what kinds of environment?
Marine
What was chalk made of?
Colccolith
Solnhofen - Germany
140 Mil. years (Jurassic) central Europe was covered by a tropical sea
Tethyan Sea
Quiet lagoon sheltered by barrier reef
Carbonate factories (precipitation) allows for forming carbonate sand and mud
and the animals that fall in there are well preserved.
Reef builders: sponges, corals.
In these sediments you find fossils.
What is the environmental factor in these lagoons?
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.