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Lecture 4

HIST 3109 Lecture 4: HIST3109 Lecture 4

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HIST 3109
Rod Philips

Monday, January 30, 2017 History 3109 Lecture 4: The Alcohol Revolution: 1500-1700 - population began to increase in this time 1500-1700 - Shifts in european diet. New world components: corn, potatoes, tomatoes • sugar • Madeira- wine made by sugar • yeast feeds on the sugar - Beverages: coffee, tea, chocolate. Alcohol: Spirits, new wines and beers • Chocolate was only consumed as a liquid not a solid at this time • coffee was served in coffee houses and this is where information (newspapers) was spread • Alcohol: • New alcohols were found • many of the new products were sweet • sugar was added to coffee and tea • alcohols were sweetened with sugar or naturally sweet - Protectant Reformation and alcohol. Luther/Calvin and drinking. Communion wine • Luther and Calvin (Protestants) unleashed a breakaway movement of the church • Took issues with practical things- some had to do with alcohol • if people didn't drink they wouldn't be immoral • Calvin brought down regulations dealing with drinking and the regulation of drinking in taverns (men only, drank, and were immoral behaviour) • Protestant Churches are associated with beer (Scotland, Denmark? idk) - Water problematic: pollution/cultural aversion by late 1500s 1 Monday, January 30, 2017 • even if the water was okay you heard enough about bad water that they were not going to risk it - Fortified wines: sherry, port, late-harvest, ice-wines, Tokaji Aszu Sweetness • Wines that were made with the addition of something -port and sherry • Sherry comes from clear (dry) to black, syrupy and sweet • Sherry made in late 1500s ish • British were at war and needed a secure source of wine and didn't want to rely on France while they were fighting them and they found it in Spain named after the region Jerez (Sherry) and added alcohol to it to made it less likely to go off • How was port and sherry fermented • Usually all ports are sweet • other sweet wines; • late-harvest wines,(always sweet) the grapes are ripe at a certain time and thats when their picked and shouldn't be overripe but when you harvest late you leave them till they start to shrivel (there losing water) so when you press these theres more sugar to water ratio then other wines Ice-wines, (Ontario can always make it cause its so cold) grapes are left on the vine • till its cold, (janurary or february) they are very shrivelled, they are picked early morning (4,5) and are frozen and pressed outside to their still frozen, the water is frozen but theres a bit of juice left that is pressed out of them - Sparkling wines:Limoux, Champagne, Christopher Merret, Dom (Pierre) Perignon • Sparkling wine: cheap wine or can be cheap • made by the process of fermentation when yeast eat sugar they made CO2 and alcohol • • making this is known as the Champagne method but now champagne has the rights to the name and call it other things - traditional or classic method • this means that when you open it up all the bubbles will emerge, there the CO2 thats trapped in there by the process • 2 fermentations the second happens in the bottle 2 Monday, January 30, 2017 • make a base wine and you bottle it then allow it to continue fermenting in the bottle with a beer cap in a cellar on its side • lie there for at east 2 years but can be a lot longer • when they make the base wine they don't filter it, the yeast falls to the bottom of the bottle these are called lees, they fall to the bottom on its side and when they made the champagne they put it in a thing and the bottle sits at a 45 degree angle bottom up and the lees then slide down and they riddle the wine, meaning that someone comes along and turn the bottle all day and it rises a bit. after a few days the lees are sitting at the top, they go in a bath and freeze a bit of the wine and the lees. then they blow off the top and the yeast part comes out and adds sugar (in different forms) and allows for it to ferm
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