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Lecture 6

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PSYC 1001
Ayca Guler- Edwards

Lecture 6 th September 24 2013 Chapter 3 The Biological Basis of Behaviour Nervous System Nervous system is a communication network that serves as the foundation for all psychological activity. It consists of billions of nerve cells or neurons. It comprises two systems- central nervous system and peripheral- defined by both anatomy and function. → Central Nervous System (CNS) Central nervous system is central to the body’s structure and workings. It is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Nearly all functions of the CNS are performed by the brain. → BRAIN Different parts do different things VS. entire brain acts in unison 1800 1900 1930 1940 2000 Phrenology. Scientists Amachine Researchers focused on Measuring the electrical Anatomists tried were able to that could people who suffered activity in brain became to understand explain the record the from specific brain one of the most important personality traits electrical broad damages to investigate techniques used in brain brain-behaviour research and it is and mental impulses patterns of abilities by and electrical relationship. Dr. developed further in measuring the neurotrans activity in Penfield worked with recent years. bumps on the mitters the brain epilepsy patients, used Ex: EEG, computerized human skull. was electrical stimulation tomography, MRI, and Scientists were developed. and made important PET scans. contributions to the -provide us information able to examine about brain structure, the nerve cells. area. -help us map brain activity Now, we know that the brain consists of highly specialized areas mostly for physical activities, but different areas coordinate for even routine mental operations. TMS video** Trans-cranial magnetic stimulation. Use to understand brain activity related to behaviour, we can modify the brain and increase or decrease activity in some parts of the brain. Magneto-encephalogram video** captures the electric activity. → SpecializedAreas of the Brain As we move upward, the functions of the brain structures go from regulation of basic processes to the control of more complicated and complex mental processes. The Hindbrain: Medulla: -attached to the spinal cord, -in charge of highly vital functions including blood circulation, breathing, regulating reflexes. Pons: -connects brainstem with cerebellum. -contains several cell bodies involved with sleep and arousal. Cerebellum: -critical to the coordination of movement and physical balance. The Midbrain: -segment between hindbrain and forebrain. -Dopamine-releasing neurons originate from midbrain, so it is indirectly related to the performance of voluntary movements. -contains other network of neurons known as reticular formation, which mainly contributes to regulation of sleep and arousal. Hindbrain and midbrain are evolutionarily older part of the brain. Newer, larger and more complex region of our brain is the forebrain. The Forebrain Thalamus: -integrates and directs sensory info (except smell) to correct location in the cortex. -the smell is the oldest and most fundamental of the senses, so it has a direct route to the cortex. -while the brain is resting during the sleep, thalamus shuts the gate on incoming sensations. Hypothalamus: -governs biological drives related to survival: fighting, fleeing, feeding and mating. -controls the autonomic nervous system. It is responsible for regulating the vital functions- body temperature, blood pressure, glucose level. -controls the master gland of the body, pituitary gland, which by releasing hormones into bloodstream controls all other glands. Hippocampus: -the structure in the brain most closely aligned to
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