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Social Behavior Part 2

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PSYC 1002
Mara Fuentes Avila

LECTURE 9: SOCIAL BEHAVIOR PART 2 Chapter 16 & class notes Norms: A scale of values which defines a range of acceptable or unacceptable attitudes or behaviors for members of a social unit Roles: Coherent sets of behaviors expected of people in specific positions within a group or social settings. They specify how people who occupy certain positions in the group should behave - concept of roles is relational – impossible to understand/determine without relationship - important in social and clinical psychology Conformity - a change in behavior or belief to accord with other people - Used in social psychology to explain how people change behavior – the capacity groups have to influence individuals  Change in behavior or belief to conform with other poeple - Following a group leader  Going along with others  Description of behavior: visible - Conformity is not mere change: to be affected by other peoples behavior - To act differently when we are in groups than if we were alone - Group pressure: impossible to understand conformity without group pressure - Whenever we interact with others – norms and roles – we develop mechanisms to interact  mechanism will exert a psychological pressure that has different consequences - As a consequence of psychological pressure to accept group norms, people change their behavior  some psychologists say that we are not aware of it most of the time  performing role of group member in a specific way because we are receiving pressure - Pressure will mold our behavior  if we change with pressure- that is conformity - Conformity is not merely going along with others, its being affected by other peoples behavior - Not always aware that we change Conformity and Social Approval: The Asch Line Judgment Studies - Asch Experiment: to prove existence of conformity - Experiment – presented as an experiment on perception - Subjects were asked to match lines of same length… fig. 6.2 - Correct answer was obvious, but people responded with incorrect answers to go along with all the group. - Members that stated incorrect answers were actors Factors Influencing the Likelihood of Conformity 1) Informative influence: Confusing situations lead us to look for someone who can tell us what to do - Whenever in a personal/social situation where we don’t have the good answer/sufficient information to know what to do, we are going to look around and rely on other group members - The other group members will tell us either verbally or by gestures what to do - Whenever we don’t have the good answer, we need information, we will get information from the rest of the group members - Will behave in the same way as group members - Change our behavior because we are using the information that group members are giving us 2) Normative influence: Conformity based on a persons desire to fulfill other’s expectations - norms: telling us the proper behavior, expected behavior for group members - Norms are either implicit or explicit – sometimes we don’t know what the norms are - We look around and try to follow norms by looking at the behavior that other group members are showing - When we are in a situation where we don’t know how to behave, we rely on others that are going to give us information, either information that they know or behavior that the group is following - As we recognize ourselves as part of a group, we will try to fulfill group expectations (or try to fulfill other peoples expectations)  even if we know that is not the correct answer, still follow because we want to fulfill other peoples expectations and conform Obedience to Authority Obedience: conformity in response to the commands of an authority figure - specific type of conformity - difference between conformity (consequence of group pressure) and obedience (type of conformity in demands of authoritive figure + group pressure)  all characteristics of conformity are still present  in addition to people responding to authoritative figure Milgram shock experiments: - Electric shock experiment - Develop
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