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Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders (3)

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Carleton University
PSYC 1002
Lorena Ruci

Lecture 16: Mental Disorders Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)*  Winter Blues o Lack of energy o Sleeping too much (lethargic) o Sad mood, pessimism o Over-eating (craving carbohydrates)  Qualifiers o Episodes during a particular time of year o Remissions of mania/hypomania o Patterns must have lasted for at least 2 years during the same period o Episodes must outnumber other episodes  Disruptive aspect of condition must occur at frequent times versus other symptoms o People who are predisposed to SAD are also predisposed to have anxiety (rare)  Summer SAD o Symptoms of classic depression (insomnia, anxiety, irritability, decreased appetite, weight loss, social withdrawal, and a deceased sex drive) SAD Treatments  Life therapy is the most promising treatment o An environment with bright light alleviates most symptoms  Diets high in fish oils  Supplements in melatonin (sleep/wake cycle) Clinical Syndromes: Schizophrenia  Class of disorders that characterized by disturbed thought patterns, as opposed to disturbed emotions, which is a characteristic of mood disorders  General symptoms o Delusions and irrational thought o Deterioration of adaptive behaviour o Hallucinations o Disturbed emotions  Prognostic factors o Later onset > respond better to treatment o Family history o Quick and consistent treatment o If diagnosed early, the person can function in a normal life o If untreated for a long time, it’s more difficult to treat o One of the most expensive disorders to treat because the most effective way to treat it is biomedical (medicine); $40-50 billion a year (USA) Subtypes of Schizophrenia  Paranoid Type o Delusions of persecution and grandeur  Catatonic Type o Motor disturbances (still/hyperactive)  Disorganized Type o Deterioration of adaptive behaviour o So overly consumed with their own ideas that it’s hard to understand and talk to them  Undifferentiated Type o Display some symptoms from different kinds, but they’re not so severe that they can be diagnosed with a certain type o Combination of different subtypes  New model for classification: o Positive (behavioural excesses, hallucinations, delusions) o Negative symptoms (flattened emotions, apathy, immobility, inappropriate behaviour) Etiology of Schizophrenia  Genetic vulnerability  Neurochemical factors o Excessive dopamine?  Structural abnormalities of the brain o Ventricular system  The neurodevelopmental hypothesis  Expressed emotion  Precipitating stress o Stressful family environments  Toxoplasmosis*
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